BIG CAT RESCUE:  Big Cat Playtime!

Cameron the male African Lion and Zabu the female white tiger love each other very much and love “playtime” where they can be very goofy big cats!

Learn more about Big Cat Rescue’s “odd couple” - watch their video bio here: Youtube

* We do not breed our cats at the sanctuary for life in a cage, Cameron was given a vasectomy and Zabu was spayed to prevent them from breeding and producing ligers. You can read more about ligers here: BCR - Ligers

WEBSITE: http://www.bigcatrescue.org

Warblers are among the most challenging birds to identify, with their seasonally changing plumages and often-confused songs and calls. Download eight illustrated plates for free, provided by the authors of The Warbler Guide. Use these “Quick Finders” to help you identify any of the 56 species of warblers in the United States and Canada…

City Lights Threaten Rainforests by Deterring Bats
by Paul Sutherland
Fruit-eating bats play an important role in forest regeneration, collecting and spreading seeds far and wide. However, human development may be stymying bat-mediated dispersal.
In a new study published in the British Ecological Society’s Journal of Applied Ecology, researchers found that fruit bats avoid feeding in light-polluted areas, which may significantly affect forest growth.
Scientists from the German Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin (IZW), undertook the study in Costa Rica, and focused on Sowell’s short-tailed bats (Carollia sowelli), a species found throughout Central America and Mexico. The findings of their study indicate that artificial lights may deter these bats from feeding on fruit and spreading seeds by 25 to 50 percent…
(read more: MongaBay)
Photograph by Alex Borisenko

City Lights Threaten Rainforests by Deterring Bats

by Paul Sutherland

Fruit-eating bats play an important role in forest regeneration, collecting and spreading seeds far and wide. However, human development may be stymying bat-mediated dispersal.

In a new study published in the British Ecological Society’s Journal of Applied Ecology, researchers found that fruit bats avoid feeding in light-polluted areas, which may significantly affect forest growth.

Scientists from the German Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin (IZW), undertook the study in Costa Rica, and focused on Sowell’s short-tailed bats (Carollia sowelli), a species found throughout Central America and Mexico. The findings of their study indicate that artificial lights may deter these bats from feeding on fruit and spreading seeds by 25 to 50 percent…

(read more: MongaBay)

Photograph by Alex Borisenko

palaeopedia
palaeopedia:

The Pantylus (1881)
Phylum : ChordataClass : AmphibiaSubclass : LepospondyliOrder : MicrosauriaFamily : PantylidaeGenus : PantylusSpecies : P. cordatus
Early Permian (300 Ma)
25 cm long (size)
North America (map)
Pantylus was probably a largely terrestrial animal, judging from its well-built legs. It was about 25 centimetres long, and resembled a lizard with a large skull and short limbs. It had numerous blunt teeth, and probably chased after invertebrate prey.

palaeopedia:

The Pantylus (1881)

Phylum : Chordata
Class : Amphibia
Subclass : Lepospondyli
Order : Microsauria
Family : Pantylidae
Genus : Pantylus
Species : P. cordatus

  • Early Permian (300 Ma)
  • 25 cm long (size)
  • North America (map)

Pantylus was probably a largely terrestrial animal, judging from its well-built legs. It was about 25 centimetres long, and resembled a lizard with a large skull and short limbs. It had numerous blunt teeth, and probably chased after invertebrate prey.

palaeopedia
palaeopedia:

The double snout, Dipnorhynchus (1927)
Phylum : ChordataClass : SarcopterygiiSubclass : DipnoiOrder : DipteriformesFamily : DipnorhynchidaeGenus : DipnorhynchusSpecies : D. sussmilchi
Devonian (410 - 360 Ma)
90 cm long (size)
Australia (map)
Dipnorhynchus was a primitive lungfish, but still it had features that set it apart from other sarcopterygians. Its skull lacked the joint that divided the skull in two in rhipidists and coelacanths. Instead, it was a solid bony structure similar to that of the first tetrapods. Instead of cheek teeth, Dipnorhynchus had tooth-like plates on the palate and lower jaw. Also like land vertebrates, the palate was fused with the brain case. It was relatively large for a lungfish, measuring 90 centimetres in length.

palaeopedia:

The double snout, Dipnorhynchus (1927)

Phylum : Chordata
Class : Sarcopterygii
Subclass : Dipnoi
Order : Dipteriformes
Family : Dipnorhynchidae
Genus : Dipnorhynchus
Species : D. sussmilchi

  • Devonian (410 - 360 Ma)
  • 90 cm long (size)
  • Australia (map)

Dipnorhynchus was a primitive lungfish, but still it had features that set it apart from other sarcopterygians. Its skull lacked the joint that divided the skull in two in rhipidists and coelacanths. Instead, it was a solid bony structure similar to that of the first tetrapods. Instead of cheek teeth, Dipnorhynchus had tooth-like plates on the palate and lower jaw. Also like land vertebrates, the palate was fused with the brain case. It was relatively large for a lungfish, measuring 90 centimetres in length.

On March 22, the country’s collective focus was once again on the Gulf of Mexico as 168,000 gallons of fuel oil spilled into Galveston Bay.

At every level, the response in Galveston was swift—the damaged tanker was quickly sealed and towed away, authorities halted all traffic in and out of the Houston Ship Channel, and the nearby community of Texas City, Texas closed beachfront access to the public.

When tar balls were reported on the beaches of Mustang Island, roughly 200 miles southwest of the spill site near Corpus Christi, Texas, the United States Coast Guard quickly dispatched clean-up crews…

Gonatus onyx
Based on decades of observations, marine biologists assumed that all squids laid their eggs in clusters on the sea floor, where the eggs developed and hatched without any help from their parents. However, through observations of the deep-sea squid Gonatus onyx using MBARI’s ROVs, scientists learned that females brood their eggs, carrying the eggs between their arms until the young hatch and swim away. 
Read more about this amazing adaptation here: MBARI  This female Gonatus onyx squid was observed at nearly 2,000 m depth swimming slowly through the water, carrying her sack of eggs. Because they cannot swim very quickly, brooding squid may be easy prey for deep diving marine mammals.
(via: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute)

Gonatus onyx

Based on decades of observations, marine biologists assumed that all squids laid their eggs in clusters on the sea floor, where the eggs developed and hatched without any help from their parents. However, through observations of the deep-sea squid Gonatus onyx using MBARI’s ROVs, scientists learned that females brood their eggs, carrying the eggs between their arms until the young hatch and swim away.

Read more about this amazing adaptation here: MBARI

This female Gonatus onyx squid was observed at nearly 2,000 m depth swimming slowly through the water, carrying her sack of eggs. Because they cannot swim very quickly, brooding squid may be easy prey for deep diving marine mammals.

(via: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute)

palaeopedia
palaeopedia:

The Elomeryx (1894)
Phylum : ChordataClass : MammaliaOrder : ArtiodactylaFamily : AnthracotheriidaeSubfamily : BothriodontinaeGenus : ElomeryxSpecies : E. armatus, E. brobonicus, E. cluai, E. crispus, E. garbanii
Middle Eocene/Early Oligocene (42 - 33 Ma)
1,5 m long (size)
Eurasia and North America (map)
Elomeryx is an extinct genus of artiodactyl ungulate, and is among the earliest known anthracotheres. The genus was extremely widespread, first being found in Asia in the middle Eocene, in Europe during the latest Eocene, and having spread to North America by the early Oligocene.
Elomeryx was about 1.5 in body length, and had a long, vaguely horse-like head. It had small tusks which it used to uproot plants, and spoon-shaped incisors ideal for pulling and cropping water plants. Elomeryx had five-toed hind legs and four-toed front legs, resulting in wide feet which made it easier to walk on soft mud. It probably had similar habits to the modern hippopotamus, to which it may have been related.

palaeopedia:

The Elomeryx (1894)

Phylum : Chordata
Class : Mammalia
Order : Artiodactyla
Family : Anthracotheriidae
Subfamily : Bothriodontinae
Genus : Elomeryx
Species : E. armatus, E. brobonicus, E. cluai, E. crispus, E. garbanii

  • Middle Eocene/Early Oligocene (42 - 33 Ma)
  • 1,5 m long (size)
  • Eurasia and North America (map)

Elomeryx is an extinct genus of artiodactyl ungulate, and is among the earliest known anthracotheres. The genus was extremely widespread, first being found in Asia in the middle Eocene, in Europe during the latest Eocene, and having spread to North America by the early Oligocene.

Elomeryx was about 1.5 in body length, and had a long, vaguely horse-like head. It had small tusks which it used to uproot plants, and spoon-shaped incisors ideal for pulling and cropping water plants. Elomeryx had five-toed hind legs and four-toed front legs, resulting in wide feet which made it easier to walk on soft mud. It probably had similar habits to the modern hippopotamus, to which it may have been related.

palaeopedia
palaeopedia:

Near the horn beast, Paraceratherium (1911)or Indricotherium (Indric beast)/Baluchitherium (beast of Baluchistan)
Phylum : ChordataClass : MammaliaOrder : PerissodactylaFamily : HyracodontidaeSubfamily : IndricotherinaeGenus : ParaceratheriumSpecies : P. bugtiense, P. transouralicum, P. prohorovi, P. orgosensis, P. zhajremensis
Oligocene (38 - 20,4 Ma)
9,5 m long and 15 000 kg (size)
Pakistan, Mongolia and western China (map)

Ever since its scattered, oversized remains were discovered in the early 20th century, Indricotherium has occasioned controversy among paleontologists, who have named this giant mammal not once, but three times—Indricotherium, Paraceratherium and Baluchitherium have all been in common usage, with the first two currently battling it out for supremacy. (For the record, Paraceratherium seems to have won the race among paleontologists, but Indricotherium is still preferred by the general public—and may yet wind up being assigned to a separate, but similar, genus.)
Whatever you choose to call it, Indricotherium was, hands-down, the largest terrestrial mammal that ever lived, approaching the size of the giant sauropod dinosaurs that preceded it by over a hundred million years. An ancestor of the modern rhinoceros, the 15-to-20-ton Indricotherium had a relatively long neck (though nothing approaching what you’d see on a Diplodocus or Brachiosaurus) and surprisingly thin legs with three-toed feet, which years ago used to be portrayed as elephant-like stumps. The fossil evidence is lacking, but this huge herbivore probably possessed a prehensile upper lip—not quite a trunk, but an appendage flexible enough to allow it to grab and tear the tall leaves of trees.
To date, fossils of Indricotherium have only been found in the central and eastern parts of Eurasia, but it’s possible that this gigantic mammal also stomped across the plains of western Europe and (conceivably) other continents as well during the Oligocene epoch. Classified as a “hyrocodont” mammal, one of its closest relatives was the much smaller (only about 500 pound) Hyracodon, a distant North American anecstor of the modern rhinoceros.

palaeopedia:

Near the horn beast, Paraceratherium (1911)
or Indricotherium (Indric beast)/Baluchitherium (beast of Baluchistan)

Phylum : Chordata
Class : Mammalia
Order : Perissodactyla
Family : Hyracodontidae
Subfamily : Indricotherinae
Genus : Paraceratherium
Species : P. bugtiense, P. transouralicum, P. prohorovi, P. orgosensis, P. zhajremensis

  • Oligocene (38 - 20,4 Ma)
  • 9,5 m long and 15 000 kg (size)
  • Pakistan, Mongolia and western China (map)

Ever since its scattered, oversized remains were discovered in the early 20th century, Indricotherium has occasioned controversy among paleontologists, who have named this giant mammal not once, but three times—Indricotherium, Paraceratherium and Baluchitherium have all been in common usage, with the first two currently battling it out for supremacy. (For the record, Paraceratherium seems to have won the race among paleontologists, but Indricotherium is still preferred by the general public—and may yet wind up being assigned to a separate, but similar, genus.)

Whatever you choose to call it, Indricotherium was, hands-down, the largest terrestrial mammal that ever lived, approaching the size of the giant sauropod dinosaurs that preceded it by over a hundred million years. An ancestor of the modern rhinoceros, the 15-to-20-ton Indricotherium had a relatively long neck (though nothing approaching what you’d see on a Diplodocus or Brachiosaurus) and surprisingly thin legs with three-toed feet, which years ago used to be portrayed as elephant-like stumps. The fossil evidence is lacking, but this huge herbivore probably possessed a prehensile upper lip—not quite a trunk, but an appendage flexible enough to allow it to grab and tear the tall leaves of trees.

To date, fossils of Indricotherium have only been found in the central and eastern parts of Eurasia, but it’s possible that this gigantic mammal also stomped across the plains of western Europe and (conceivably) other continents as well during the Oligocene epoch. Classified as a “hyrocodont” mammal, one of its closest relatives was the much smaller (only about 500 pound) Hyracodon, a distant North American anecstor of the modern rhinoceros.

Trouble for Panthers in Florida

Attempts are being made in Florida to place a disposal well for oil and gas waste right next door to the only refuge for Florida’s last 100 panthers AND close to drinking water supplies. This kind of poorly regulated toxic dumping ground would pose a serious threat to both panthers and people.

More here: EPA should protect the endangered Florida panther, not oil and gas profits

* NRDC BioGems Defenders take collective action to protect wildlife and our last wild places. Join us by liking us at www.facebook.com/BioGemsDefenders