Hybrid Dolphin Gives Scientists Rare Window into Evolution
by Zoë Shribman
You’ve seen DNA analysis on every forensic criminology show on TV. Normally, it leads detectives to the killer, but in another case—this one on the open ocean—it has led scientists to a hybrid dolphin.
The clymene dolphin (Stenella clymene) is something of a biological riddle. Though these animals were first declared their own species by the American Society of Mammalogists in 1981, they were originally thought to be a subspecies of the spinner dolphin (S. longirostris), despite their similarities to the striped dolphin (S. coeruleoalba). DNA analysis has solved the puzzle, conclusively stating that clymene dolphins are a distinct species.
In her study, Ana Amaral at the University of Lisbon collected both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from 72 individuals of the three similar dolphin species. Mitochondrial DNA is passed on through the organism’s mother, whereas nuclear DNA comes from both parents. Here, analyzing both was key. In her analysis, Amaral found that the DNA from the nucleus was most similar to the spinner dolphin, while DNA from the mitochondria was most similar to the striped dolphin…
(read more: PBS - NovaNext)                        (photo: NOAA)

Hybrid Dolphin Gives Scientists Rare Window into Evolution

by Zoë Shribman

You’ve seen DNA analysis on every forensic criminology show on TV. Normally, it leads detectives to the killer, but in another case—this one on the open ocean—it has led scientists to a hybrid dolphin.

The clymene dolphin (Stenella clymene) is something of a biological riddle. Though these animals were first declared their own species by the American Society of Mammalogists in 1981, they were originally thought to be a subspecies of the spinner dolphin (S. longirostris), despite their similarities to the striped dolphin (S. coeruleoalba). DNA analysis has solved the puzzle, conclusively stating that clymene dolphins are a distinct species.

In her study, Ana Amaral at the University of Lisbon collected both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from 72 individuals of the three similar dolphin species. Mitochondrial DNA is passed on through the organism’s mother, whereas nuclear DNA comes from both parents. Here, analyzing both was key. In her analysis, Amaral found that the DNA from the nucleus was most similar to the spinner dolphin, while DNA from the mitochondria was most similar to the striped dolphin…

(read more: PBS - NovaNext)                        (photo: NOAA)

Mystery of bottle gourd migration to Americas solved:  (Phys.org) —A team with members from several institutions in the U.S. has finally set to rest the mystery of how the bottle gourd found its way to the Americas. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team explains that new DNA analysis has revealed that the bottle gourd made its way to South America by floating over from Africa.
For several decades, scientists have been wrangling with the mystery of how the bottle gourd, which is believed to be native to Africa and Asia, made its way to the Americas where it grew wild approximately 10,000 years prior to being domesticated. Some believed the mystery had been solved when a research team using DNA techniques reported back in 2005 that the bottle gourd in the Americas had Asian DNA, suggesting the gourd made its way to North America by early people carrying it across the land bridge that existed between what is now Alaska and Russia.
In this new effort, the research team contradicts that earlier finding claiming that newer DNA analysis tools show that gourds in the Americas actually have African DNA, which suggests they made it to the New World by floating across the ocean…
(read more: http://phy.so/311323692) (Image: Wikipedia.)

Mystery of bottle gourd migration to Americas solved: 

(Phys.org) —A team with members from several institutions in the U.S. has finally set to rest the mystery of how the bottle gourd found its way to the Americas. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team explains that new DNA analysis has revealed that the bottle gourd made its way to South America by floating over from Africa.

For several decades, scientists have been wrangling with the mystery of how the bottle gourd, which is believed to be native to Africa and Asia, made its way to the Americas where it grew wild approximately 10,000 years prior to being domesticated. Some believed the mystery had been solved when a research team using DNA techniques reported back in 2005 that the bottle gourd in the Americas had Asian DNA, suggesting the gourd made its way to North America by early people carrying it across the land bridge that existed between what is now Alaska and Russia.

In this new effort, the research team contradicts that earlier finding claiming that newer DNA analysis tools show that gourds in the Americas actually have African DNA, which suggests they made it to the New World by floating across the ocean…

(read more: http://phy.so/311323692)

(Image: Wikipedia.)

Budding Clues to Plant Evolution The Amborella Genome Project has provided the first-ever genome sequence of the Amborella trichopoda—a small shrub representing the sole survivor of an ancient lineage that traces back to the last common ancestor of all flowering plants. 
The DNA sequence provides insight into the evolution behind the sudden proliferation of flowers on Earth millions of years ago, solving what Darwin calls “an abominable mystery.” According to the researchers, there is conclusive evidence that 200 million years ago, the ancestor of all flowering plants evolved following a “genome doubling event” in which it continually duplicated its genes. Some duplicated genes were lost over time while others took on new functions like helping develop floral organs. To learn more, read the Research Article here: http://bit.ly/1drMhXq or a related Perspective: http://bit.ly/1drMdHi 
You can also read two related papers on the mitochondrial DNA of Amborella (http://bit.ly/1drMlGO) and on the technique used to sequence the plant’s genomes (http://bit.ly/1drMqu8). Image Credit: Scott Zona/Flickr/Wikimedia Commons

Budding Clues to Plant Evolution

The Amborella Genome Project has provided the first-ever genome sequence of the Amborella trichopoda—a small shrub representing the sole survivor of an ancient lineage that traces back to the last common ancestor of all flowering plants.

The DNA sequence provides insight into the evolution behind the sudden proliferation of flowers on Earth millions of years ago, solving what Darwin calls “an abominable mystery.” According to the researchers, there is conclusive evidence that 200 million years ago, the ancestor of all flowering plants evolved following a “genome doubling event” in which it continually duplicated its genes. Some duplicated genes were lost over time while others took on new functions like helping develop floral organs.

To learn more, read the Research Article here: http://bit.ly/1drMhXq or a related Perspective: http://bit.ly/1drMdHi

You can also read two related papers on the mitochondrial DNA of Amborella (http://bit.ly/1drMlGO) and on the technique used to sequence the plant’s genomes (http://bit.ly/1drMqu8).

Image Credit: Scott Zona/Flickr/Wikimedia Commons

New Study Brings Scientists Closer to the Origin of RNA (Phys.org) — One of the biggest questions in science is how life arose from the chemical soup that existed on early Earth. One theory is that RNA, a close relative of DNA, was the first genetic molecule to arise around 4 billion years ago, but in a primitive form that later evolved into the RNA and DNA molecules that we have in life today. New research shows one way this chain of events might have started.
Chemists at the Georgia Institute of Technology have shown how molecules that may have been present on early Earth can self-assemble into structures that could represent a starting point of RNA. The spontaneous formation of RNA building blocks is seen as a crucial step in the origin of life, but one that scientists have struggled with for decades…
(read more)Image: Nicholas Hud

New Study Brings Scientists Closer to the Origin of RNA

(Phys.org) — One of the biggest questions in science is how life arose from the chemical soup that existed on early Earth. One theory is that RNA, a close relative of DNA, was the first genetic molecule to arise around 4 billion years ago, but in a primitive form that later evolved into the RNA and DNA molecules that we have in life today. New research shows one way this chain of events might have started.

Chemists at the Georgia Institute of Technology have shown how molecules that may have been present on early Earth can self-assemble into structures that could represent a starting point of RNA. The spontaneous formation of RNA building blocks is seen as a crucial step in the origin of life, but one that scientists have struggled with for decades…

(read more)

Image: Nicholas Hud

Old Dogs Teach a New Lesson About Canine Origins
Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domestic Dogs
by Elizabeth Pennisi
The story of dogs began thousands of years ago, when gray wolves began sidling out of the shadows and into the company of humans. There’s little argument about that scenario—but plenty about when and where it took place, with the leading theories suggesting dogs were domesticated either in the Middle East or in East Asia. A study on page 871 draws on a new source of evidence, DNA from the fossils of ancient dogs and wolves, and comes to a third conclusion: Dogs originated in Europe, from a now-extinct branch of gray wolves.
The dogfight goes on. Based on the new study, “you will be hard-pressed to come up with a narrative about how dogs were not domesticated in Europe,” says Greger Larson, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Durham in the United Kingdom.
But some fans of the East Asia theory argue that the DNA examined, from cell organelles called mitochondria, cannot tell the whole story and that the analysis may be skewed because the ancient samples are primarily from Europe. “Critical observers will need more than mitochondrial DNA to be convinced,” says Stephen O’Brien, a geneticist at St. Petersburg State University in Russia, who says he is in neither dog origin camp…
(read more: Science/AAAS)
photo: DEL BASTON/CENTER FOR AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY

Old Dogs Teach a New Lesson About Canine Origins

Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domestic Dogs

by Elizabeth Pennisi

The story of dogs began thousands of years ago, when gray wolves began sidling out of the shadows and into the company of humans. There’s little argument about that scenario—but plenty about when and where it took place, with the leading theories suggesting dogs were domesticated either in the Middle East or in East Asia. A study on page 871 draws on a new source of evidence, DNA from the fossils of ancient dogs and wolves, and comes to a third conclusion: Dogs originated in Europe, from a now-extinct branch of gray wolves.

The dogfight goes on. Based on the new study, “you will be hard-pressed to come up with a narrative about how dogs were not domesticated in Europe,” says Greger Larson, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Durham in the United Kingdom.

But some fans of the East Asia theory argue that the DNA examined, from cell organelles called mitochondria, cannot tell the whole story and that the analysis may be skewed because the ancient samples are primarily from Europe. “Critical observers will need more than mitochondrial DNA to be convinced,” says Stephen O’Brien, a geneticist at St. Petersburg State University in Russia, who says he is in neither dog origin camp…

(read more: Science/AAAS)

photo: DEL BASTON/CENTER FOR AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY

How One Warbler Learned to Be a Better Migrant
by Daisy Yuhas
ome of us are born with wanderlust, but what exactly spurs a bird to journey thousands of miles each year? The answer is in part genetic, and a recent study of yellow-rumped warblers in the journal Evolution reveals how changes over generations could improve a bird’s abilities to become a master, long-distance flyer.
The research, conducted by zoologists and physiologists at the University of British Columbia, began with a genetic puzzle. There are four different groups of yellow-rumped warblers, each distinct in behavior and appearance: the Goldman’s, myrtle, Audubon’s, and black-fronted. Their genes, however, tell a different story.

Examining DNA obtained from the nucleus of these birds’ blood cells revealed that the Audubon’s and black-fronted warblers were indistinguishable. In other words, these birds are so closely related that, despite different appearances and the fact that Audubon’s migrate whereas black-fronteds don’t, these birds can’t be recognized as different species…
(read more: Audubon Magazine)
photo by  Pterzian/commons.wikimedia commons

How One Warbler Learned to Be a Better Migrant

by Daisy Yuhas

ome of us are born with wanderlust, but what exactly spurs a bird to journey thousands of miles each year? The answer is in part genetic, and a recent study of yellow-rumped warblers in the journal Evolution reveals how changes over generations could improve a bird’s abilities to become a master, long-distance flyer.

The research, conducted by zoologists and physiologists at the University of British Columbia, began with a genetic puzzle. There are four different groups of yellow-rumped warblers, each distinct in behavior and appearance: the Goldman’s, myrtle, Audubon’s, and black-fronted. Their genes, however, tell a different story.

Examining DNA obtained from the nucleus of these birds’ blood cells revealed that the Audubon’s and black-fronted warblers were indistinguishable. In other words, these birds are so closely related that, despite different appearances and the fact that Audubon’s migrate whereas black-fronteds don’t, these birds can’t be recognized as different species…

(read more: Audubon Magazine)

photo by  Pterzian/commons.wikimedia commons

The Race to Save the Orange by Altering Its DNA

by Amy Harmon

The disease that sours oranges and leaves them half green, already ravaging citrus crops across the world, had reached the state’s storied groves. Mr. Kress, the president of Southern Gardens Citrus, in charge of two and a half million orange trees and a factory that squeezes juice for Tropicana and Florida’s Natural, sat in silence for several long moments.

“O.K.,” he said finally on that fall day in 2005, “let’s make a plan.”

In the years that followed, he and the 8,000 other Florida growers who supply most of the nation’s orange juice poured everything they had into fighting the disease they call citrus greening.

To slow the spread of the bacterium that causes the scourge, they chopped down hundreds of thousands of infected trees and sprayed an expanding array of pesticides on the winged insect that carries it. But the contagion could not be contained.

They scoured Central Florida’s half-million acres of emerald groves and sent search parties around the world to find a naturally immune tree that could serve as a new progenitor for a crop that has thrived in the state since its arrival, it is said, with Ponce de León. But such a tree did not exist…

(read more: NY Times)                

photos: Richard Perry/The New York Times

What’s Swimming In The River? Just Look For DNA
by Richard Harris
If you want to protect rare species, first you have to find them. In the past few years, biologists have developed a powerful new tool to do that. They’ve discovered that they can often find traces of animal DNA in streams, ponds — even oceans.

The idea took root just five years ago, when biologists in France found they could detect invasive American bullfrogs simply by sampling pond water and looking for an exact genetic match to the frogs’ DNA.

Now, all sorts of biologists are eagerly putting this test to use. The technology has been a hot topic at the Society for Conservation Biology’s global meeting in Baltimore this week.

Conservation scientist Stephen Spear, for example, has been sampling water to study one of the oddest (and most awesome) creatures in American streams: the elusive hellbender salamander (aka The ‘Snot Otter’)…
(read more/listen to story: NPR)
Photo by Robert J. Erwin

What’s Swimming In The River? Just Look For DNA

by Richard Harris

If you want to protect rare species, first you have to find them. In the past few years, biologists have developed a powerful new tool to do that. They’ve discovered that they can often find traces of animal DNA in streams, ponds — even oceans.

The idea took root just five years ago, when biologists in France found they could detect invasive American bullfrogs simply by sampling pond water and looking for an exact genetic match to the frogs’ DNA.

Now, all sorts of biologists are eagerly putting this test to use. The technology has been a hot topic at the Society for Conservation Biology’s global meeting in Baltimore this week.

Conservation scientist Stephen Spear, for example, has been sampling water to study one of the oddest (and most awesome) creatures in American streams: the elusive hellbender salamander (aka The ‘Snot Otter’)…

(read more/listen to story: NPR)

Photo by Robert J. Erwin

Who Needs Sex When You Can Just Steal?
by Amy Maxmen
No animal has gone completely without sex for as long as bdelloid rotifers, who have been celibate for millions of years. The always female, translucent, and half-a-millimeter long creatures perplex evolutionary biologists, who believe that combining the DNA of two parents is necessary to create the genetic diversity that animal populations need to adapt to a changing environment. (Bacteria manage to diversify without sex because genes can easily jump from one bacterium to another.)
Yet with more than 460 species, bdelloid rotifers have managed to survive and diversify over evolutionary time too. So how do they do it? They may do it by “stealing” genes from other organisms.
Reporting online today in Nature, researchers have found that the genome of the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga (electron microscope image, above) contains an unusual amount of DNA from other organisms that appears to have “jumped” in through a process called horizontal gene transfer that occurs often in asexual bacteria, but very rarely in animals.
About 8% of Adineta's genes derive from bacteria and other nonanimal kingdoms of life. The authors suggest that fraction helps keep their populations genetically diverse and adaptable—no whoopee required.
(via: ScinceNews/AAAS)              (image by Giulio Melone)

Who Needs Sex When You Can Just Steal?

by Amy Maxmen

No animal has gone completely without sex for as long as bdelloid rotifers, who have been celibate for millions of years. The always female, translucent, and half-a-millimeter long creatures perplex evolutionary biologists, who believe that combining the DNA of two parents is necessary to create the genetic diversity that animal populations need to adapt to a changing environment. (Bacteria manage to diversify without sex because genes can easily jump from one bacterium to another.)

Yet with more than 460 species, bdelloid rotifers have managed to survive and diversify over evolutionary time too. So how do they do it? They may do it by “stealing” genes from other organisms.

Reporting online today in Nature, researchers have found that the genome of the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga (electron microscope image, above) contains an unusual amount of DNA from other organisms that appears to have “jumped” in through a process called horizontal gene transfer that occurs often in asexual bacteria, but very rarely in animals.

About 8% of Adineta's genes derive from bacteria and other nonanimal kingdoms of life. The authors suggest that fraction helps keep their populations genetically diverse and adaptable—no whoopee required.

(via: ScinceNews/AAAS)              (image by Giulio Melone)

700,000 Year Old Horse Becomes Oldest Animal To Have its Genome Sequenced
A genome sequence derived from a 700,000-year-old horse fossil (inset) sheds new light on equine evolution and confirms that Przewalski’s horse (pictured) is indeed genetically distinct from domesticated breeds.
by Gisela Telis
Scientists have sequenced the oldest genome to date—and shaken up the horse family tree in the process. Ancient DNA derived from a horse fossil that’s between 560,000 and 780,000 years old suggests that all living equids—members of the family that includes horses, donkeys, and zebras—shared a common ancestor that lived at least 4 million years ago, approximately 2 million years earlier than most previous estimates. The discovery offers new insights into equine evolution and raises the prospect of recovering and exploring older DNA than previously thought possible…
(read more: Science NOW/AAAS)
images:  Claudia Feh/Association pour le cheval de Przewalski, France; (inset) Ludovic Orlando

700,000 Year Old Horse Becomes Oldest Animal To Have its Genome Sequenced

A genome sequence derived from a 700,000-year-old horse fossil (inset) sheds new light on equine evolution and confirms that Przewalski’s horse (pictured) is indeed genetically distinct from domesticated breeds.

by Gisela Telis

Scientists have sequenced the oldest genome to date—and shaken up the horse family tree in the process. Ancient DNA derived from a horse fossil that’s between 560,000 and 780,000 years old suggests that all living equids—members of the family that includes horses, donkeys, and zebras—shared a common ancestor that lived at least 4 million years ago, approximately 2 million years earlier than most previous estimates. The discovery offers new insights into equine evolution and raises the prospect of recovering and exploring older DNA than previously thought possible…

(read more: Science NOW/AAAS)

images:  Claudia Feh/Association pour le cheval de Przewalski, France; (inset) Ludovic Orlando

DNA Sheds Light on Rare Killer Whale Type
by Megan Gannon
Scientists have long suspected that the killer whale, Orcinus orca, may actually be four different species or subspecies based of subtle differences in appearance and variations in behavior. The rarest of them all is known as type D. These fat-headed orcas, marked by tiny white patches around their eyes, were only recently observed in the wild, some 50 years after they were first identified in photographs from a mass stranding in New Zealand.
The skeleton of one of the type D whales that washed ashore in 1955 ended up at a museum in Wellington. In a new study, scientists analyzed DNA from the bones, showing, yes, type D is likely a distinct subspecies or species. The research, detailed in the journal Polar Biology, also suggests type D diverged from other killer whales about 390,000 years ago, making it the second oldest orca type…
(read more: Live Science)                    (image: Shutterstock)

DNA Sheds Light on Rare Killer Whale Type

by Megan Gannon

Scientists have long suspected that the killer whale, Orcinus orca, may actually be four different species or subspecies based of subtle differences in appearance and variations in behavior. The rarest of them all is known as type D. These fat-headed orcas, marked by tiny white patches around their eyes, were only recently observed in the wild, some 50 years after they were first identified in photographs from a mass stranding in New Zealand.

The skeleton of one of the type D whales that washed ashore in 1955 ended up at a museum in Wellington. In a new study, scientists analyzed DNA from the bones, showing, yes, type D is likely a distinct subspecies or species. The research, detailed in the journal Polar Biology, also suggests type D diverged from other killer whales about 390,000 years ago, making it the second oldest orca type…

(read more: Live Science)                    (image: Shutterstock)

Tanagers and Cardinals
We have many brightly-colored bird species, but few can compete with the North American tanagers. Molecular studies and other new research suggests the genus Piranga, including this Western Tanager (P. ludoviciana), are actually part of the cardinal Family (Cardinalidae), and not the tanager Family (Thraupidae) where they were originally placed. 
The relationship is supported by their plumage: Piranga species are extensively red, orange or yellow - colors defined by carotinoid pigments - which is rarely seen in true tanagers but very common in the cardinal family. Despite the bright colors, they can often be hard to see as they spend much of their time high in the woodland canopy foraging on insects. Western Tanagers are a major consumer of the forestry crop pest Western Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis).
Photo by Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife
(via: Peterson Field Guides)

Tanagers and Cardinals

We have many brightly-colored bird species, but few can compete with the North American tanagers. Molecular studies and other new research suggests the genus Piranga, including this Western Tanager (P. ludoviciana), are actually part of the cardinal Family (Cardinalidae), and not the tanager Family (Thraupidae) where they were originally placed.

The relationship is supported by their plumage: Piranga species are extensively red, orange or yellow - colors defined by carotinoid pigments - which is rarely seen in true tanagers but very common in the cardinal family. Despite the bright colors, they can often be hard to see as they spend much of their time high in the woodland canopy foraging on insects. Western Tanagers are a major consumer of the forestry crop pest Western Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis).

Photo by Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife

(via: Peterson Field Guides)

Development of the Starlet Anemone
This alien-looking creature is known as Nematostella vectensis, or the starlet sea anemone. Like other anemones, starlets start life as free-swimming larvae. They then settle into an appropriately mucky spot on the seafloor and metamorphose into their adult polyp form, seen here.
Anemones lack brains, but the section of the larvae containing the sensory organs actually becomes the bulbous root end of the adult, while the other side sprouts delicate tentacles and transforms into a filter-feeding mouth.
Researchers have now found that the “head genes” of N. vectensis, though held in what eventually becomes the animal’s “foot,” correspond to the head genes found in the actual heads of higher animals. Humans and other brainy beasts share a common, brainless, ancestor with sea anemones that lived 600 million to 700 million years ago. The findings were released Feb. 20, 2013 in the journal PLOS Biology.
photo credit: Nature, 2005
(via: Live Science)

Development of the Starlet Anemone

This alien-looking creature is known as Nematostella vectensis, or the starlet sea anemone. Like other anemones, starlets start life as free-swimming larvae. They then settle into an appropriately mucky spot on the seafloor and metamorphose into their adult polyp form, seen here.

Anemones lack brains, but the section of the larvae containing the sensory organs actually becomes the bulbous root end of the adult, while the other side sprouts delicate tentacles and transforms into a filter-feeding mouth.

Researchers have now found that the “head genes” of N. vectensis, though held in what eventually becomes the animal’s “foot,” correspond to the head genes found in the actual heads of higher animals. Humans and other brainy beasts share a common, brainless, ancestor with sea anemones that lived 600 million to 700 million years ago. The findings were released Feb. 20, 2013 in the journal PLOS Biology.

photo credit: Nature, 2005

(via: Live Science)

Carnivorous Plant Ejects Junk DNA

by Paul Gabrielsen 

The carnivorous humped bladderwort (Utricularia gibba), found on all continents except Antarctica, is a model of ruthless genetic efficiency. Only 3% of this aquatic plant’s DNA is not part of a known gene, new research shows. In contrast, only 2% of human DNA is part of a gene.
The bladderwort, named for its water-filled bladders (shown left) that suck in unsuspecting prey, is a relative of the tomato. Since their evolutionary split 87 million years ago, both plants have experienced episodes of genetic duplication where the plants’ DNA doubled in size…
(read more: Science/AAAS)            
(photos: L - Eye of Science/Science Source; R - Bruce Salmon)
Carnivorous Plant Ejects Junk DNA
by Paul Gabrielsen

The carnivorous humped bladderwort (Utricularia gibba), found on all continents except Antarctica, is a model of ruthless genetic efficiency. Only 3% of this aquatic plant’s DNA is not part of a known gene, new research shows. In contrast, only 2% of human DNA is part of a gene.

The bladderwort, named for its water-filled bladders (shown left) that suck in unsuspecting prey, is a relative of the tomato. Since their evolutionary split 87 million years ago, both plants have experienced episodes of genetic duplication where the plants’ DNA doubled in size…

(read more: Science/AAAS)           

(photos: L - Eye of Science/Science Source; R - Bruce Salmon)

Ant Family Tree Constructed: Confirms Date of Evolutionary Origin, Underscores Importance of Neotropics
by Science Daily staff
Apr. 22, 2013 — Anyone who has spent time in the tropics knows that the diversity of species found there is astounding and the abundance and diversity of ants, in particular, is unparalleled. Scientists have grappled for centuries to understand why the tropics are home to more species of all kinds than the cooler temperate latitudes on both sides of the equator. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the higher species numbers in the tropics, but these hypotheses have never been tested for the ants, which are one of the most ecologically and numerically dominant groups of animals on the planet.
New research by evolutionary biologists Dr. Corrie Moreau of Chicago’s Field Museum and Dr. Charles Bell of the University of New Orleans is helping answer these questions. Their findings are presented this week in the journal Evolution.The scientists used DNA sequence data to build the largest ant tree-of-life to date. This tree-of-life, or family tree of ants, not only allowed them to better understand which ant species are related, but also made it possible to infer the age for modern ants because information from the fossil record in the form of geologic time was included in the research…
(read more: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/04/130422101252.htm)
(photo: Muhammed Mahdi Karim)

Ant Family Tree Constructed: Confirms Date of Evolutionary Origin, Underscores Importance of Neotropics

by Science Daily staff

Apr. 22, 2013 — Anyone who has spent time in the tropics knows that the diversity of species found there is astounding and the abundance and diversity of ants, in particular, is unparalleled. Scientists have grappled for centuries to understand why the tropics are home to more species of all kinds than the cooler temperate latitudes on both sides of the equator. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the higher species numbers in the tropics, but these hypotheses have never been tested for the ants, which are one of the most ecologically and numerically dominant groups of animals on the planet.

New research by evolutionary biologists Dr. Corrie Moreau of Chicago’s Field Museum and Dr. Charles Bell of the University of New Orleans is helping answer these questions. Their findings are presented this week in the journal Evolution.The scientists used DNA sequence data to build the largest ant tree-of-life to date. This tree-of-life, or family tree of ants, not only allowed them to better understand which ant species are related, but also made it possible to infer the age for modern ants because information from the fossil record in the form of geologic time was included in the research…

(read more: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/04/130422101252.htm)

(photo: Muhammed Mahdi Karim)