The Ottoman Viper - Vipera xanthina is a venomous viper species found in northeastern Greece and Turkey, as well as certain islands in the Aegean Sea. The species, which averages 70–95 cm (27.6–37.4 in) in length, feeds on small mammals and birds.
Photo: Benny Trapp                                                             via: Wikipedia

The Ottoman Viper - Vipera xanthina is a venomous viper species found in northeastern Greece and Turkey, as well as certain islands in the Aegean Sea. The species, which averages 70–95 cm (27.6–37.4 in) in length, feeds on small mammals and birds.

Photo: Benny Trapp                                                             via: Wikipedia

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Caucasus subalpine viper - Vipera dinniki
Commonly named Dinnik’s viper, and Caucasus subalpine viper, Vipera (Pelias) dinniki (Viperidae) is a species endemic to the Caucasus , found in Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan.
It is a highly polymorphic species, with different color morphs in same small populations. The body color ranges from monophonic bronze-green to citreous-yellow, orange, red, or silver-grey, with dark brown or black zigzag which often can be broken off to few separate patterns. 
Some interesting facts of this subalpine viper are: (1) the ability of females to hibernate while pregnant; and (2) the ability to give birth a year after mating (as observed in captive specimens). The possible reproduction without males in high-mountain zones of the Greater Caucasus can reflect either parthenogenesis, or the protracted retention of viable sperm, or delayed development of the impregnated ovules (histological analyzes are required to resolve this question).
Remaining pregnant during hibernation and the possibility of giving birth without mating are unique aspects of the reproductive strategies of alpine snakes of the Caucasus, developed in the glacial period.
The Caucasus subalpine viper is a declining species with some populations near to extinction. It is listed as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List, and in the Red Data books of the Russian Federation, Krasnodarsky Krai, and Adygea Republic.
References: [1] - [2] - [3]
Photo credit: ©Larsa Darafeyenka
Locality: captive.

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Caucasus subalpine viper - Vipera dinniki

Commonly named Dinnik’s viper, and Caucasus subalpine viper, Vipera (Pelias) dinniki (Viperidae) is a species endemic to the Caucasus , found in Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan.

It is a highly polymorphic species, with different color morphs in same small populations. The body color ranges from monophonic bronze-green to citreous-yellow, orange, red, or silver-grey, with dark brown or black zigzag which often can be broken off to few separate patterns. 

Some interesting facts of this subalpine viper are: (1) the ability of females to hibernate while pregnant; and (2) the ability to give birth a year after mating (as observed in captive specimens). The possible reproduction without males in high-mountain zones of the Greater Caucasus can reflect either parthenogenesis, or the protracted retention of viable sperm, or delayed development of the impregnated ovules (histological analyzes are required to resolve this question).

Remaining pregnant during hibernation and the possibility of giving birth without mating are unique aspects of the reproductive strategies of alpine snakes of the Caucasus, developed in the glacial period.

The Caucasus subalpine viper is a declining species with some populations near to extinction. It is listed as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List, and in the Red Data books of the Russian Federation, Krasnodarsky Krai, and Adygea Republic.

References: [1] - [2] - [3]

Photo credit: ©Larsa Darafeyenka

Locality: captive.

Russell’s Viper (Daboia russelli)
The Russell’s viper is responsible for many of the deaths that occur from snake bite around the world. This is from a number of factors including it’s wide distribution, it’s ability to live in many habitats, it’s often close proximity to human habitation and agricultural fields, and the large amount of venom it often injects.  But did you know that the effects of the venom can send also send people back into puberty? The venom can effect the pituitary gland, causing it to cease making the hormones that we need as adults. According to a study published in The Lancet, about twenty-nine percent of patients who recovered from a Russell’s Viper envenomation had signs of hypopituitarism or Sheehan’s Syndrome.  Bite victims lose their sex drive, lose fertility and lose their body hair, particularly around the genitals. Hormones can be administered by doctor’s to counteract these symptoms, but treatment is expensive and must continue throughout the patients life.photograph by Subhojit Chakrabarty, West Bengal, India
(via: Project Noah)

Russell’s Viper (Daboia russelli)

The Russell’s viper is responsible for many of the deaths that occur from snake bite around the world. This is from a number of factors including it’s wide distribution, it’s ability to live in many habitats, it’s often close proximity to human habitation and agricultural fields, and the large amount of venom it often injects.

But did you know that the effects of the venom can send also send people back into puberty? The venom can effect the pituitary gland, causing it to cease making the hormones that we need as adults. According to a study published in The Lancet, about twenty-nine percent of patients who recovered from a Russell’s Viper envenomation had signs of hypopituitarism or Sheehan’s Syndrome.

Bite victims lose their sex drive, lose fertility and lose their body hair, particularly around the genitals. Hormones can be administered by doctor’s to counteract these symptoms, but treatment is expensive and must continue throughout the patients life.

photograph by Subhojit Chakrabarty, West Bengal, India

(via: Project Noah)

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Ethiopian Mountain Adder - Bitis parviocula | ©HGHjim 
The Ethiopian mountain adder, Bitis parviocula (Viperidae) is a medium sized viperid known only from a few locations in southwestern Ethiopia.
Until recently only two road-killed specimens and a single live animal had been acknowledged and the species remained in relative scientific obscurity. In 2007, through an agreement with an exporter, twenty of these animals were brought to the United States from Africa. One of the females imported produced young shortly after and this species began to make its way into the hobbyist trade as a high-dollar species.
Given the rarity of this snake, little is known about the composition or toxicity of the venom. Indigenous people of southern Ethiopia consider this snake highly dangerous. In 2009, an amateur herpetologist in San Antonio, Texas (US), was envenomated by a young B. parviocula while attempting to ready the animal for shipment. Attending physicians began to administer the South African polyvalent antivenom SAIMR (South African Institute of Medical Research). However, after ¾ of the initial vial was given the patient showed signs of anaphylaxis and the antivenom was stopped at that point. Given the negligible dose, it remained unclear if the SAIMR would be an effective treatment for this species.
A study published in 2011 has shown that the South African polyvalent antivenom SAIMR produce paraspecific neutralization of lethality with B. parviocula venom in vivo, and should be considered in emergency treatment.

I have just fallen in love all over again @_@

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Ethiopian Mountain Adder - Bitis parviocula | ©HGHjim 

The Ethiopian mountain adder, Bitis parviocula (Viperidae) is a medium sized viperid known only from a few locations in southwestern Ethiopia.

Until recently only two road-killed specimens and a single live animal had been acknowledged and the species remained in relative scientific obscurity. In 2007, through an agreement with an exporter, twenty of these animals were brought to the United States from Africa. One of the females imported produced young shortly after and this species began to make its way into the hobbyist trade as a high-dollar species.

Given the rarity of this snake, little is known about the composition or toxicity of the venom. Indigenous people of southern Ethiopia consider this snake highly dangerous. In 2009, an amateur herpetologist in San Antonio, Texas (US), was envenomated by a young B. parviocula while attempting to ready the animal for shipment. Attending physicians began to administer the South African polyvalent antivenom SAIMR (South African Institute of Medical Research). However, after ¾ of the initial vial was given the patient showed signs of anaphylaxis and the antivenom was stopped at that point. Given the negligible dose, it remained unclear if the SAIMR would be an effective treatment for this species.

A study published in 2011 has shown that the South African polyvalent antivenom SAIMR produce paraspecific neutralization of lethality with B. parviocula venom in vivo, and should be considered in emergency treatment.

I have just fallen in love all over again @_@

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Video

Spider Tailed Horned Viper (Pseudocerastes urarachnoides) - 

This rare and understudied viper has adapted a different type of hunting strategy.  Unlike its cousins who use their tails as warning rattles, this small viper uses its strange looking tail as a caudal lure.  The growth on the end of its tail resembles a spider crawling about, and it twitches it in such a way that captures the attention of animals that prey on spiders such as small mammals and birds.  

Although this snake is extremely well adapted and special, specimens found for study are few and far between, so not much is known about its behavior, reproduction habits and lifestyle.  It was not described officially until 2007.  The first specimen found in 1968 was thought to have an abnormal growth on its tail.  Another was not collected until 2003.  Both were found in the deserts of Iran.

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African Horned Viper -  Beer Sheva, Southern Israel 
Photographer: Eyal Bartov
Cerastes cerastes are among the most abundant and easily distinguishable of the venomous snakes of the North African and Middle Eastern deserts.
Photographer’s Notes:
The African Horned Viper is a Saharan animal, it lives in the sand deserts of Northern Africa and the Sinai and the Northern Negev in Israel. In order to get rid of potential enemies , it makes scary sounds. The sound is not caused by huffing and puffing, but by rubbing the scales on the sides of the body.

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African Horned Viper -  Beer Sheva, Southern Israel

Photographer: Eyal Bartov

Cerastes cerastes are among the most abundant and easily distinguishable of the venomous snakes of the North African and Middle Eastern deserts.

Photographer’s Notes:

The African Horned Viper is a Saharan animal, it lives in the sand deserts of Northern Africa and the Sinai and the Northern Negev in Israel. In order to get rid of potential enemies , it makes scary sounds. The sound is not caused by huffing and puffing, but by rubbing the scales on the sides of the body.

The Temple Viper aka Wagler’s Viper (Tropidolaemus wagleri) is an arboreal and nocturnal viper found in the forests of SE Asia. They display sexual dimorphism: The females are much larger (up to 1 m), and distictively patterned (the patterns may vary across their range). The males are much smaller and thinner, and have simpler patterns, if at all. Like most species of the vipers, they are live bearing. They are generally sluggish and deliberate in their movements, but strike quickly when taking out prey. They possess a rather potent venom.

(photos: Rahul Alvares)

* above photo: Female viper is having none of his shit…

The stunningly beautiful Russell’s Viper (Daboia russelli) is the snake credited with the most bites and human deaths each year. Despite its shy and retiring nature preferring to blend in with its habitat, it is often stepped over and upon by humans with which it often lives in close proximity. It is often found in grasslands and the fields where crops are grown where it feeds upon rodents. Rusell’s Viper spotted by Project Noah member Rivu Ghorai. Want to learn more about the viper family? Check out our Project NOAH blog, Viperidae: The Vipers

The stunningly beautiful Russell’s Viper (Daboia russelli) is the snake credited with the most bites and human deaths each year. Despite its shy and retiring nature preferring to blend in with its habitat, it is often stepped over and upon by humans with which it often lives in close proximity. It is often found in grasslands and the fields where crops are grown where it feeds upon rodents.

Rusell’s Viper spotted by Project Noah member Rivu Ghorai.

Want to learn more about the viper family? Check out our Project NOAH blog, Viperidae: The Vipers