Sometimes called the eastern mud salamander, it is native to the southeastern United States. They like clear water and soft mud and debris to bury and hide in.
These salamanders lives change drastically from youth to adult. In their younger stages, they are a bright red or orange color, and eat anything their size or smaller in the water, including each other. As they grow, they open their diets to insects and mites on land. Adults will tend to be a darker, rusteir red with more spots. Females are generally larger than the males. They can grow up to about 6 inches. Females may not be sexually mature until 4 or 5 years.
These salamander are different from their close relatives, the red salamander. Unlike their cousins, the mud salamanders are stalkier, and they have black eyes instead of yellow.
Their numbers are rapidly decreasing and people are not able to do many studies on this species becuase they are difficult to find. Causes of critical endangerment are not verified, and are currently being investigated in areas with especially vulnerable populations like Virginia.
… is an extinct genus of Reptiliomorpha (reptile like amphibians), which lived about 320-305 million years ago. Classification is uncertain, but it was possibly an early reptile or an amphibian close to the diadectomorphs. Its remains were found in the Czech Republic. Its name means “single-tooth lizard”. Solenondosaurus measured about 45 cm.
The Solenodonsaurus show a curious mix of characters making it difficult to place phyllogentically. The teeth lack labyrinthodont folding of the enamel, and it skull is without the otic notch seen in other reptiliomorph amphibians…
(read more: Wikipedia) (illustration by Dmitry Bogdanov)
Also known as the Andean frog or Crawford’s water frog, the Titicaca water frog is a large species of frog found only in Lake Titicaca and its rivers in South America. Like other frogs the titicaca water frog feeds mostly on small fish, insects and other small invertebrates. The Titicaca water frog has excessive skin which is an adaptation for high altitude living as the excess skin helps it breathe, as more oxygen can diffuse in. It also possesses reduced lungs, a high red blood cell count and smaller red blood cells to help it breathe in its low oxygen environment.
… is endemic to slow-moving streams and moist forests of sub-tropical and tropical Ecuador. This species was once considered extinct as a result of the widespread amphibian chytrid fungus that has decimated many amphibian populations. However, it was rediscovered in October 2010 during an expedition to Southwestern Ecuador sponsored by Conservation International, the IUCN Amphibian Specialist Group, and Global Wildlife Conservation (GWC).
The African Common Toad or Guttural Toad (Amietophrynus gutturalis) has not before been seen in the desert country of Quatar, located on the Arabian Peninsula.
Science teacher Henry Kavale likes to go for a spin on his bike at weekends, and while pedalling through the marshes at Al Khor recently he saw something hopping around in the waterlogged undergrowth. A toad.
On other rides he saw more of the creatures. So last weekend he sent some of his Year 10 students from Al Khor International School out to see if they could catch one for identification.
It didn’t take long; within a few minutes Henry’s son Eugene had triumphantly nabbed one of the amphibians and taken it home to be photographed…
Sierra Nevada Frog and Toad Proposed for Endangered Species Act Protection, With 2 Million Acres of Protected Habitat
CBD media release
SACRAMENTO, Calif.— In accordance with an agreement with the Center for Biological Diversity, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service today proposed federal Endangered Species Act protection for Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs and Yosemite toads, along with more than 2 million acres of proposed critical habitat across the Sierra Nevada mountains. The Service also proposed protection for a population of mountain yellow-legged frogs that lives in the southern Sierra Nevada.
These protections are the result of a 2011 agreement between the Center and the Service to speed up endangered species protection decisions for 757 imperiled animals and plants around the country. So far, 56 species have been fully protected and another 96 have been proposed for protection under the settlement agreement. The amphibian species proposed for listing today have been waiting more than a decade for protection.
“This is great news for the only native amphibians of the high Sierra Nevada, which have suffered massive declines in recent decades and disappeared from most of the places where they once lived,” said the Center’s Jeff Miller…
Amphibians Living Close to Farm Fields Are More Resistant to Common Insecticides
May 1, 2013 — Amphibian populations living close to agricultural fields have become more resistant to a common insecticide and are actually resistant to multiple common insecticides, according to two recent studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh.
In a study published today in Evolutionary Applications, the Pitt researchers demonstrate, for the first time, that tadpoles from populations close to farm fields are more resistant to chlorpyrifos — one of the most commonly applied insecticides in the world, often sold as “Dursban” or “Lorsban.” In addition, a related study published in February shows that tadpoles resistant to chlorpyrifos are also resistant to other insecticides.
“While we’ve made a lot of progress in understanding the ecological consequences to animals that are unintentionally exposed to insecticides, the evolutionary consequences are poorly understood,” said study principal investigator Rick Relyea, Pitt professor of biological sciences and director of the University’s Pymatuning Laboratory of Ecology. “Our study is the first to explore how amphibian populations might evolve to be resistant to insecticides when they live in places that have been sprayed for many years.”…
Described as both a new species and an entirely new genus as recently as 1989, the Ethiopian short-headed frog is a moderately sized, rather robust amphibian with a striking pattern of yellow and blackish-brown bands running along the back. The feet of this species are conspicuously broad, with unwebbed digits and a much reduced fifth toe, which is situated high on the side of the fourth. Intriguingly, the Ethiopian short-headed frog is widely separated geographically from its nearest relatives, species of Probreviceps and Breviceps, and show characteristics somewhat intermediate between the two…
The Iberian frog (Rana iberica), like most of its hopping ilk, is commonly found above ground, dwelling among the streams of Portugal and Spain. But new research shows the animals can, and do, make a living underground.
The study found that Iberian frogs can breed and live their entire lives in cavelike chambers, the first time this has been seen for a frog in Western Europe. The creatures were observed breeding in underground drainage compartments built beneath Portugal’s Serra da Estrela Natural Park; aboveground the animals are also found in “small ponds, humid meadows and soaked fields,” the authors wrote in a study.
Although frogs and toads are known to inhabit caves during certain parts of their life cycles, or to seek their moderate, consistent temperatures, no frog in the world is known to live solely underground, according to the research…
Endangered gopher frogs found at new breeding spot
By JANET McCONNAUGHEY
The snoring noise near a shallow pond in a Mississippi national forest was meant to make female frogs sit up and take notice, but it got biologists even more excited. The noise indicated that dusky gopher frogs (Rana sevosa)— one of the world’s most endangered species — had found a new breeding spot.
The animals, also called Mississippi gopher frogs, live underground and breed only in rain-fed ponds so shallow that they dry up in summer. Three spots in Mississippi hold an estimated total of 100 to 200 frogs, but eggs and tadpoles have consistently shown up in only one, called Glen’s Pond, in the DeSoto National Forest near Saucier.
…is a unique species of burrowing toad found only in Mexico, parts of southern Texas and Central America. As its common name suggests the Mexican burrowing toad is fossorial and spends most of its time in underground burrows feeding on insects like ants and termites. Like the purple frog the burrowing toad often emerges from its den after long periods of rain and mates. Also like the unrelated purple frog when threatened or calling the Mexican burrowing toad can inflate its body.