The Blue-legged Mantella (Mantella expectata) is a species of frog in the Mantellidae family. It is endemic to Madagascar. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, rivers, and Intermittent rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss. It is over collected for the pet trade and may soon qualify for critically endangered again.
Golden mantellas (Mantella aurantiaca) are frogs native to Madagascar. They belong to a subfamily (Mantellinae) that is strikingly convergent with the dart-poison frogs of Central and South America (family Dendrobatidae). That is, they aren’t closely related to Dendrobatids, but have independently evolved alkaloids in their skin that are distasteful or toxic to predators, and similarly display bright colors as a warning.
Since 1999, scientists have discovered 615 new species of animals and plants on the island of Madagascar. This newly described species of Mantellid frog, Boophis lilianae (seen here mating), was formally identified in 2008.
Two new frog genera discovered in India’s Western Ghats, but restricted to threatened swamp-ecosystems
by Aathira Perinchery
The misty mountains of the Western Ghats seem to unravel new secrets the more you explore it. Researchers have discovered two new frog genera, possibly restricted to rare and threatened freshwater swamps in the southern Western Ghats of India. The discoveries, described in the open-access journal Zootaxa, prove once again the importance of the mountain range as a biodiversity hotspot.
The Western Ghats is home to a stunning variety of flora and fauna ranging from large mammals like the Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) to fascinating amphibians such as the Malabar gliding frog (Rhacophorus malabaricus). Tree frogs like these gliding frogs belong to quite a diverse family of amphibians: Rhacophoridae. The mostly-arboreal rhacophorids are found in habitats including ground litter, on bushes and tree tops. Their reproductive modes also vary greatly: some lay eggs in foam nests that develop into tadpoles and metamorphize into frogs while others develop directly from eggs into young frogs. Around 60 rhacophorids are found in the Western Ghats. But knowledge about amphibian diversity in the mountain range has surged, with over 70 new species across all known genera discovered over the past decade...
During the breeding season, from the early warm days of March through late May, male Western Chorus Frogs will call from small wetlands, wet meadows or ditches, or semi-wooded pools to attract mates. They inhale then close their nostrils, forcing the exhaled air to inflate their throat pouch as it passes over the vocal chords, which acts as an amplifier. Considering these little frogs are only 0.75 to 1.5 inches (2-4 cm) long, their comb-like rattle can be remarkably loud!
The genus Pseudacris is part of the tree frog family, Hylidae, and these frogs show the same broad pads on their toes that tree frogs do, even though they don’t often climb. The name “Western” for P. triseriata is a bit misleading, as the species is found from South Dakota and Oklahoma east to Quebec and New Jersey; they are also known by the names “Striped” and “Midland Chorus Frog”.
… is a common bush frog ranging from Cameroun to Uganda, south-western Ethiopia and western Kenya. This species breeds in small pools and primarily inhabits savannahs. It penetrates forest in heavily deforested areas around Nkongsamba and Yaounde in Cameroon. In southwestern Ethiopia it has been found in tropical deciduous forest.
Camouflage keeps many animals safe from predators, but some say the camouflage of Vietnamese mossy frogs is the most elaborate in the animal kingdom. Its uneven texture of bumps, along with the red, green and black montage of colors, appears to transform this frog into a clump of moss or lichen—blending flawlessly with its habitat. When frightened they fold into a ball and play dead. These frogs have sticky discs at the end of each toe, making them skillful tree climbers. Large eyes give them a broad range of vision…
Pseudophryne covacevichae is endemic to Queensland, Australia, with a range of approximately 250km sq.. They lay clutches of 6-82 eggs in soil or vegetation. Tadpole development appears to pause just before hatching, and after hatching the tadpoles are washed into a nearby stream.
The main threat to P. covacevichae is deforestation and habitat loss. Most of the populations of this species live on unprotected land, where logging and construction work occurs. This can dramatically change the water quality of the streams they inhabit. Although chytridiomycosis has not been observed in this species, the disease has occurred in several locations in Australia.
More information about P. covacevichae needs to be gathered in order to make plans for its conservation. The main issues that need to be addressed are land management that reduces the impact on this species and control of the spread of chytridiomycosis.
P. frosti lives in cold, high altitude habitats in Victoria, Australia. It is found only on the Mount Baw Baw Plateau, and it has an unusual lifestyle adapted to its alpine environment. Adults live underground, where they feed on worms and insects. When it’s time to breed in summer, they meet above ground around gullies. The females return underground and make a foamy nest from mucous for their tadpoles. The tadpoles emerge at an earlier stage than most frogs, and they live off a yolk supply instead of feeding themselves before they metamorphose into adult frogs.
There has been a 98% decline in P. frosti in the last 30 years, the most likely reasons for this are chytridiomycosis and climate change. Chytridiomycosis is a fungal infection that affects the skin of amphibians (I’ll post more on this later). P. frosti is especially vulnerable, as it appears that frogs in cold climates are the most severely affected.
Melbourne Zoo hopes to restore P. frosti populations and save it from extinction with captive breeding programmes using eggs collected in 2011.
…is a species of microhylid frog found throughout the United States. Although they are called toads they are in fact frogs and are called toads due to their terrestrial habits. Like most amphibians they can be found in moist areas like swamps, streams and the leaf litter of forests. Narrowmouth toads are burrowers and rarely come above ground. When they are above ground it is usually at night to avoid predators.
* Dendrobates (Adelphobates) galactonotus is endemic to Brazil, where it lives in leaf litter near wetlands and in lowland rainforest. Eggs are fertilized in temporary forest pools, and the tadpoles are carried on the parent’s back to other bodies of water. - Paxon
This publication serves as a complete update for the most recent list of scientific and standard English names of North American amphibians and reptiles north of Mexico. Unlike the previous update (op.cit.), the list is a stand alone volume. This edition includes new taxa described since the previous publication and any taxonomic changes that have led to name changes, both English and scientific. As in previous versions, annotations are given to explain such changes.