Monkeys use Field Scientists as Human Shields Against Predators

by Jeremy Hance

If you’re monkey—say a samango monkey in South Africa—probably the last thing you want is to be torn apart and eaten by a leopard or a caracal. In fact, you probably spend a lot of time and energy working to avoid such a grisly fate. Well, now there’s a simpler way: just stick close to human researchers.

A new study in Behavioral Ecology finds that samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis erythrarchus), also known as Stairs’s white-collared monkey, feel a lot safer from land predators when they know humans are close by.

Studying samango monkeys in the Soutpansberg Mountains of South Africa, researchers were curious about how these monkeys, which have long been habituated to scientists, may change behavior depending on the presence or absence of humans.

Headed by Katarzyna Nowak with Durham University, the scientists placed peanut feeding buckets for the monkeys at various heights in trees. Arboreal browsers, samango monkeys eat up-and-down trees, but like many such monkeys they show a preference for eating higher up in trees rather than near the ground. Scientists believe this is because it helps the species avoid ground-based predators…

(read more: Monga Bay)

photos by MongaBay and Katarzyna Nowak

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White-tailed Titi  (White-browed Titi, Red Titi Monkey, Titi Monkey, Socayo, Songo Songo, Cotoncillo rojo)
TheWhite-tailed Titi, Callicebus discolor (Primates - Pitheciidae), is one of the 29 recognized species of the South American titi monkeys. It is a small monkey, diurnal and arboreal. They live in groups ranging from 2 to 5 individuals, with an adult male and a female and her offspring. They are monogamous. The male helps in brood care and carries young on his back.
Callicebus discolor has one of the largest distribution ranges of all titi monkey species, occurring from central Peru to southern Colombia (Peru, Ecuador, Colombia).
References: [1] - [2] - [3]
Photo credit: ©Stephen Davies
Locality: Garzacoha, Sucumbios, Ecuador

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White-tailed Titi  (White-browed Titi, Red Titi Monkey, Titi Monkey, Socayo, Songo Songo, Cotoncillo rojo)

TheWhite-tailed TitiCallicebus discolor (Primates - Pitheciidae), is one of the 29 recognized species of the South American titi monkeys. It is a small monkey, diurnal and arboreal. They live in groups ranging from 2 to 5 individuals, with an adult male and a female and her offspring. They are monogamous. The male helps in brood care and carries young on his back.

Callicebus discolor has one of the largest distribution ranges of all titi monkey species, occurring from central Peru to southern Colombia (Peru, Ecuador, Colombia).

References: [1] - [2] - [3]

Photo credit: ©Stephen Davies

Locality: Garzacoha, Sucumbios, Ecuador

Kirk’s red colobus (Procolobus kirkii) is one of the 13 species of red colobus monkey assessed in Africa, of which 11 were listed as endangered or critically endangered.
Two may already be extinct: Bouvier’s red colobus (Procolobus pennantii bouvieri) has not been seen in 25 years, and no living Miss Waldron’s red colobus (Procolobus badius waldroni) has been seen by a primatologist since 1978, despite occasional reports that some still survive
Photograph: Tom Struhsaker/Conservation International
(via: Guardian UK)

Kirk’s red colobus (Procolobus kirkii) is one of the 13 species of red colobus monkey assessed in Africa, of which 11 were listed as endangered or critically endangered.

Two may already be extinct: Bouvier’s red colobus (Procolobus pennantii bouvieri) has not been seen in 25 years, and no living Miss Waldron’s red colobus (Procolobus badius waldroni) has been seen by a primatologist since 1978, despite occasional reports that some still survive

Photograph: Tom Struhsaker/Conservation International

(via: Guardian UK)

The grey-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix cinerea) is found in Vietnam. In Asia, more than 70% of primates are classified on the IUCN ‘red list’ as vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered; in both Vietnam and Cambodia, approximately 90% of primate species are considered at risk of extinction.
Photograph: Tilo Nadler/Conservation International
(via: Guardian UK)

The grey-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix cinerea) is found in Vietnam. In Asia, more than 70% of primates are classified on the IUCN ‘red list’ as vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered; in both Vietnam and Cambodia, approximately 90% of primate species are considered at risk of extinction.

Photograph: Tilo Nadler/Conservation International

(via: Guardian UK)

From Shakespearean sonnets to impassioned speeches to lovers’ whispers, human language is an amazingly rich form of expression, whose evolution has long puzzled scientists.

Now, some researchers propose that human language represents the blending of two different communication systems, those found in songbirds and monkeys. Content-based language may have its roots in monkey alarm calls, while grammar may come from the expressive parts of bird song…

The owl-faced monkey (Cercopithecus hamlyni) is found mainly in bamboo and tropical moist forests of the Virunga National Park in the Democratic Rep. of Congo. It is one of 218 mammal species found in Virunga, including 22 primates.  The monkey is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Many of its haunts are being lost as forests are cleared for agriculture. It is also caught in the crossfire of a civil war. The population is estimated to have declined by 30 per cent in the past three decades. image: Rod Williams/Naturepl.com
(via: New Scientist)

The owl-faced monkey (Cercopithecus hamlyni) is found mainly in bamboo and tropical moist forests of the Virunga National Park in the Democratic Rep. of Congo. It is one of 218 mammal species found in Virunga, including 22 primates.

The monkey is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Many of its haunts are being lost as forests are cleared for agriculture. It is also caught in the crossfire of a civil war. The population is estimated to have declined by 30 per cent in the past three decades.

image: Rod Williams/Naturepl.com

(via: New Scientist)

With the cooperation of hundreds of ranchers and researchers, Azuero Earth Project aims to replant a swath of tropical dry forest, connecting the dry tropical forest on the coast to cloud forest further inland. The trees along the 140-kilometer (80-mile) wildlife corridor will create a continuous habitat for the Critically Endangered Azuero spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis) and improve the soil for people who farm and ranch along the way…

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Lion-tailed macaque..!! | ©Sachin Shidlingannavar
Lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus (Primates - Cercopithecidae) are found only in India, in the Western Ghats mountains.
They are classified as a Endangered species on the IUCN Red List and are also included in Appendix I of CITES.
According to the last evaluation made by the IUCN Red List (ver. 3.1) the total wild population of Macaca silenus is estimated to be less than 4,000 individuals, made up of 47 isolated subpopulations in seven different locations. The macaque in the photo is from a self-sustainable single population of 32 groups of lion-tailed macaques in Sirsi-Honnavara, India.

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Lion-tailed macaque..!! | ©Sachin Shidlingannavar

Lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus (Primates - Cercopithecidae) are found only in India, in the Western Ghats mountains.

They are classified as a Endangered species on the IUCN Red List and are also included in Appendix I of CITES.

According to the last evaluation made by the IUCN Red List (ver. 3.1) the total wild population of Macaca silenus is estimated to be less than 4,000 individuals, made up of 47 isolated subpopulations in seven different locations. The macaque in the photo is from a self-sustainable single population of 32 groups of lion-tailed macaques in Sirsi-Honnavara, India.

The Zanzibar red colobus (Procolobus kirkii) is a species of red colobus monkey endemic to Unguja, the main island of the Zanzibar Archipelago, in Tanzania. Brought to attention of Western science by Sir John Kirk, this colobus was first described by John Edward Gray in 1868. It is now considered an endangered species, and extensive conservation efforts have been undertaken since the mid-1990s.
Photograph: juvenile pictured, byHasin Shakur                                         via: WIkipedia

The Zanzibar red colobus (Procolobus kirkii) is a species of red colobus monkey endemic to Unguja, the main island of the Zanzibar Archipelago, in Tanzania. Brought to attention of Western science by Sir John Kirk, this colobus was first described by John Edward Gray in 1868. It is now considered an endangered species, and extensive conservation efforts have been undertaken since the mid-1990s.

Photograph: juvenile pictured, byHasin Shakur                                         via: WIkipedia

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Leontopithecus chrysomelas (in tree) | ©Hans Hillewaert
The Golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas), also known as the Golden-headed tamarin, is a lion tamarin endemic to Brazil. It is found only in the lowland and premontane tropical forest fragments in the state of Bahia, and therefore is considered to be an endangered species.
Mammalia - Primates - Callitrichidae - Leontopithecus - L. chrysomelas

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Leontopithecus chrysomelas (in tree) | ©Hans Hillewaert

The Golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas), also known as the Golden-headed tamarin, is a lion tamarin endemic to Brazil. It is found only in the lowland and premontane tropical forest fragments in the state of Bahia, and therefore is considered to be an endangered species.

Mammalia - Primates - Callitrichidae - LeontopithecusL. chrysomelas

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Macaco-da-noite (Aotus nigriceps) - Peru | ©Cláudio Dias Timm
The Black-headed night monkeys, Aotus nigriceps, are small primates approximately the same size as a small squirrel. They are native to neotropical South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru).
Animalia - Chordata - Mammalia - Primates - Aotidae - Aotus - A. nigriceps
More information.

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Macaco-da-noite (Aotus nigriceps) - Peru | ©Cláudio Dias Timm

The Black-headed night monkeys, Aotus nigriceps, are small primates approximately the same size as a small squirrel. They are native to neotropical South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru).

Animalia - Chordata - Mammalia - Primates - Aotidae - Aotus - A. nigriceps

More information.

Video: Female Monkeys Throw Stones To Attract Males
People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. But the tactic works for female capuchin monkeys who want a male’s attention.
by Douglas Main
To signal their readiness to mate and get males’ attention, some female capuchin monkeys in a Brazilian forest reserve have taken to throwing stones at the objects of their desire. It’s the first time this type of behavior has been witnessed in the wild. To make a scientifically dubious cross-species reference, perhaps they have simply run out of other courtship ideas, like human men honking horns in this Seinfeld bit (at 1:45). More typically, females signal their readiness to mate by pulling pouting faces, whining loudly or touching males and running away. But some female bearded capuchin monkeys in Serra da Capivara National Park have taken this more assertive approach. As the BBC reports…
(read more and watch video: Popular Science)
image: Tiago Falótico and Eduardo B. Ottoni / PLOS ONE

Video: Female Monkeys Throw Stones To Attract Males

People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. But the tactic works for female capuchin monkeys who want a male’s attention.

by Douglas Main

To signal their readiness to mate and get males’ attention, some female capuchin monkeys in a Brazilian forest reserve have taken to throwing stones at the objects of their desire. It’s the first time this type of behavior has been witnessed in the wild. To make a scientifically dubious cross-species reference, perhaps they have simply run out of other courtship ideas, like human men honking horns in this Seinfeld bit (at 1:45). More typically, females signal their readiness to mate by pulling pouting faces, whining loudly or touching males and running away. But some female bearded capuchin monkeys in Serra da Capivara National Park have taken this more assertive approach. As the BBC reports

(read more and watch video: Popular Science)

image: Tiago Falótico and Eduardo B. Ottoni / PLOS ONE

Snow Monkey Leaps In
by Rowan Hooper
This is the Jigokudani monkey park in Nagano prefecture, Japan. "Jigokudani" means "hell valley" – so called because of the rocky terrain and volcanic springs – although it is actually a rather heavenly place for monkeys.
Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) are the only monkeys native to Japan, and live further north than any other non-human primate. Famous for their habit of bathing in hot springs, they can also leap, as can be seen in this shot by US photographer Diane McAllister. The monkeys are strong swimmers, so if the one in this photo didn’t make the leap, it would be fine…
(read more: New Scientist)
photo: Dian McAllsiter

Snow Monkey Leaps In

by Rowan Hooper

This is the Jigokudani monkey park in Nagano prefecture, Japan. "Jigokudani" means "hell valley" – so called because of the rocky terrain and volcanic springs – although it is actually a rather heavenly place for monkeys.

Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) are the only monkeys native to Japan, and live further north than any other non-human primate. Famous for their habit of bathing in hot springs, they can also leap, as can be seen in this shot by US photographer Diane McAllister. The monkeys are strong swimmers, so if the one in this photo didn’t make the leap, it would be fine…

(read more: New Scientist)

photo: Dian McAllsiter