palaeopedia
palaeopedia:

The Hyrax tooth, Hyracodon (1856)
Phylum : ChordataClass : MammaliaOrder : PerissodactylaFamily : HyracodontidaeSubfamily : HyracodontinaeGenus : HyracodonSpecies : H. browni, H. leidyanus, H. medius, H. nebraskensis, H. petersoni
Middle Eocene/late Oligocene (32 - 26 Ma)
1,5 m long and 200 kg
North America
It was a lightly built, pony-like mammal of about 1.5 m long. Hyracodon’s skull was large in comparison to the rest of the body. Hyracodon’s dentition resembled that of later rhinoceroses, but it was a much smaller animal and differed very little in appearance from the primitive horses of which it was a contemporary (32-26 million years ago). It had a short, broad snout and its long, slender limbs had three digits.
Like the primitive horses, hyracodonts inhabited open forests and wooded steppes and turned from browsing foliage to grazing grass. They died out without leaving any descendants and they mark the end of the phylogenetic branch of hornless, running rhinoceroses.
This small, fast-running creature was a close relative of the largest land mammal that ever lived, the 8 m long Paraceratherium.

palaeopedia:

The Hyrax tooth, Hyracodon (1856)

Phylum : Chordata
Class : Mammalia
Order : Perissodactyla
Family : Hyracodontidae
Subfamily : Hyracodontinae
Genus : Hyracodon
Species : H. browni, H. leidyanus, H. medius, H. nebraskensis, H. petersoni

  • Middle Eocene/late Oligocene (32 - 26 Ma)
  • 1,5 m long and 200 kg
  • North America

It was a lightly built, pony-like mammal of about 1.5 m long. Hyracodon’s skull was large in comparison to the rest of the body. Hyracodon’s dentition resembled that of later rhinoceroses, but it was a much smaller animal and differed very little in appearance from the primitive horses of which it was a contemporary (32-26 million years ago). It had a short, broad snout and its long, slender limbs had three digits.

Like the primitive horses, hyracodonts inhabited open forests and wooded steppes and turned from browsing foliage to grazing grass. They died out without leaving any descendants and they mark the end of the phylogenetic branch of hornless, running rhinoceroses.

This small, fast-running creature was a close relative of the largest land mammal that ever lived, the 8 m long Paraceratherium.

njwight
njwight:

Please Shout for Little Shrek
The DEA in South Africa has released rhino poaching statistics for 2013.  There has been a staggering increase in slaughtered animals over 2012 and the number of arrests has declined. Incomprehensible. I am thinking of Little Shrek right now and whether he will get to grow old. Makes me nuts…
Stats here: http://www.stoprhinopoaching.com/statistics.aspx
njwight:

Here is the handsome youngster, just over four weeks old. Shrek the rhino. Show him your love!

njwight:

Please Shout for Little Shrek

The DEA in South Africa has released rhino poaching statistics for 2013.  There has been a staggering increase in slaughtered animals over 2012 and the number of arrests has declined. Incomprehensible. I am thinking of Little Shrek right now and whether he will get to grow old. Makes me nuts…

Stats here: http://www.stoprhinopoaching.com/statistics.aspx

njwight:

Here is the handsome youngster, just over four weeks old. Shrek the rhino. Show him your love!

Protection for White Rhinos
Our friends at USFWS Endangered Species have taken immediate action to protect the southern white rhino under the Endangered Species Act in response to the poaching crisis decimating rhino populations worldwide. By extending this protection to the white rhino – the last remaining unprotected rhinoceros species – they are closing a loophole that has been exploited by poachers and traffickers looking to cash in on the global demand for rhino horn. 
Learn more: http://1.usa.gov/18MMYIEPhoto: USFWS/M.Gadd
(via: USFWS_International Affairs)

Protection for White Rhinos

Our friends at USFWS Endangered Species have taken immediate action to protect the southern white rhino under the Endangered Species Act in response to the poaching crisis decimating rhino populations worldwide. By extending this protection to the white rhino – the last remaining unprotected rhinoceros species – they are closing a loophole that has been exploited by poachers and traffickers looking to cash in on the global demand for rhino horn.

Learn more: http://1.usa.gov/18MMYIE

Photo: USFWS/M.Gadd

(via: USFWS_International Affairs)

DOLLAR VALUE OF HUNTED AFRICAN ANIMALS

by Jennifer Viegas

Nearly any animal can be legally killed in many parts of Africa, so long as the hunter pays the right amount of money. For rare and endangered species, the cost can escalate to thousands of U.S. dollars, suggests documentation issued by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Management in Zimbabwe.

“National parks are obviously trying to make money,” Johnny Rodrigues, Chairman for Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force, told Discovery News. “The hunters have to pay the parks if they want to shoot the animals.”

It can be a Catch-22, since the parks often struggle to pay their staff, which include those who work to care for and protect the animals. Permitting a hunter to shoot a black rhino yields a quick $120,000. The high price tag may serve as a deterrent, but it also reflects how much poachers can earn without even benefiting the parks…

(read more: Discovery News)

photos by Patrick Giraud (t) and Vassil (b) via Wikipedia

Ground Zero for Endangered species:

New program to Assist Animals on the Brink Across SE Asia

by Lacey Avery

Organizations within the international conservation community are joining forces to minimize impending extinctions in Southeast Asia, where habitat loss, trade and hunting have contributed to a dramatic decline in wildlife. The coalition is aptly named ASAP, or the Asian Species Action Partnership.

“ASAP began as a response to alarming results revealed in a 2008 comprehensive assessment for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species,” Rachel Roberts, International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Species Survival Commission (IUCN SSC) network coordination officer, told mongabay.com.

The assessment revealed a heavy concentration of threatened mammals in Southeast Asia with similar trends observed for other animals. In response, interested conservation organizations came together in a joint call for action…

(read more: Monga Bay)

images: M - Tamaraw, by Gregg Yan; M - Orangutan, by Eleifert | Wikipedia; B - Sumatran Rhino, by Jeremy Hance

Shomili, a four-month old greater one-horned rhinoceros, or Indian Rhino, runs behind her mother Sundari at San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Shomili, or “Mili” as zookeepers call her, was released into the park’s Asian Savanna habitat to join the rest of the zoo’s herd on April 23, 2013. Mili is the 65th greater one-horned rhino born at the zoo, which is working to conserve this endangered species. Only about 3,400 of these rhinos survive in the wild.
credit: Ken Bohn, San Diego Zoo Safari Park
(via: Live Science)

Shomili, a four-month old greater one-horned rhinoceros, or Indian Rhino, runs behind her mother Sundari at San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Shomili, or “Mili” as zookeepers call her, was released into the park’s Asian Savanna habitat to join the rest of the zoo’s herd on April 23, 2013. Mili is the 65th greater one-horned rhino born at the zoo, which is working to conserve this endangered species. Only about 3,400 of these rhinos survive in the wild.

credit: Ken Bohn, San Diego Zoo Safari Park

(via: Live Science)

Rhino populations in Sumatra, Borneo should be combined to save Sumatran rhino from extinction

by MongaBay staff

A new study argues for treating endangered Sumatran populations in Borneo and Sumatra as “a single conservation unit”, lending academic support to a controversial proposal to move wild rhinos from Malaysia to Indonesia.

The paper, authored by an international team of rhino experts and published in the journal Oryx, says that genetic differences between the island populations are minimal. Given the dire straights of the species — the wild population is estimated at less than 100 individuals — the researchers argue that ensuring the Sumatran rhino’s survival takes precedence over preserving what little genetic diversity remains between populations…

(read more: MongaBay)

Malaysia May Lend Rhinos to Indonesia to Save Species From Extinction
by Monga Bay staff
Conservationists and officials meeting last month at a rhino crisis summit in Singapore agreed to a radical plan to loan Sumatran rhinos between nations if it means saving the critically endangered species from extinction.  The proposal, which could still be thwarted by red tape and political opposition, could lead Malaysia to send some of its Sumatran rhinos to semi-captive breeding facilities in Indonesia.  “I will bring to my government for approval whatever I and other Sumatran rhino experts feel are the best recommendations for specific actions. If that involves a recommendation to loan rhinos between nations, so be it. This is our very last chance to save the species, and we must get it right this time,” said Laurentius Ambu, Sabah Wildlife Department, in a statement issued after the conclusion of the conference. “While doing that, we are at the same time maximising our efforts via parallel initiatives by collaborating with overseas reproductive experts on different options available to us since time is not with us.”…
(read more: MongaBay)                        
(photo: Land Empowerment Animals People (LEAP)/BORA)

Malaysia May Lend Rhinos to Indonesia to Save Species From Extinction

by Monga Bay staff

Conservationists and officials meeting last month at a rhino crisis summit in Singapore agreed to a radical plan to loan Sumatran rhinos between nations if it means saving the critically endangered species from extinction.

The proposal, which could still be thwarted by red tape and political opposition, could lead Malaysia to send some of its Sumatran rhinos to semi-captive breeding facilities in Indonesia.

“I will bring to my government for approval whatever I and other Sumatran rhino experts feel are the best recommendations for specific actions. If that involves a recommendation to loan rhinos between nations, so be it. This is our very last chance to save the species, and we must get it right this time,” said Laurentius Ambu, Sabah Wildlife Department, in a statement issued after the conclusion of the conference. “While doing that, we are at the same time maximising our efforts via parallel initiatives by collaborating with overseas reproductive experts on different options available to us since time is not with us.”…

(read more: MongaBay)                        

(photo: Land Empowerment Animals People (LEAP)/BORA)

To stop poaching, wildlife managers are taking desperate measures… poison.

So far this year, more than 200 rhinos have been killed by poachers in South Africa alone, according to the Guardian, and conservationists fear that number will climb to about 1,000 before the end of this year.

And it isn’t the rhinos themselves that are valuable — it’s their horns, Inquisitr.com reports. Though the horns are made of keratin (the same substance found in fingernails), they’re valued by some Asian cultures as an aphrodisiac and as medicine…

The first ever remote camera picture of a critically endangered Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), taken in the forest of Sabah in Malaysia. The WWF in Indonesia said it had found traces of the rhinos on Borneo, where the species was thought to have been extinct for some 20 years. The Sumatran rhino population has dropped 50% over the past two decades, and it is believed there are fewer than 200 left in the world.
(via: Guardian UK)
(Photo: Raymond Alfred/WWF/AFP/Getty Images)

The first ever remote camera picture of a critically endangered Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), taken in the forest of Sabah in Malaysia. The WWF in Indonesia said it had found traces of the rhinos on Borneo, where the species was thought to have been extinct for some 20 years. The Sumatran rhino population has dropped 50% over the past two decades, and it is believed there are fewer than 200 left in the world.

(via: Guardian UK)

(Photo: Raymond Alfred/WWF/AFP/Getty Images)

This Miracle Baby Rhino Has the Best Birth Story Ever
The calf was born almost exactly a year after her father, nicknamed Hope, was brutally poached in South Africa.
by Joanna M. Foster
The birth of a baby rhino is always a miracle, and the pudgy new addition at Kariega Game Reserve family in South Africa is no exception. In fact, this little girl is downright wondrous. She was born almost exactly a year after her father was brutally poached. That bull rhino was nicknamed Hope for his heart-wrenching struggle to survive. Hope didn’t make it, but it appears he left behind more than just fond memories. 
n March 2012, rangers at Kariega Game Reserve woke up after a seemingly tranquil moonlit night to discover three white rhinos huddled in tall grasses matted with blood. Two were still struggling to breathe, and one had already died in the night. Poachers had shot the gentle, prehistoric-looking giants and then sliced deep with their pangas to scrape out every fragment of horn.
Miraculously, the surviving bull and cow were able to limp off into the bushes with the help of a wildlife veterinary team. Over the course of the next month the grim determination of the surviving rhinos to carry on in spite of their life-threatening injuries earned them special nicknames, The bull was called Themba, which means Hope, and the cow was named Thandi, or Love…
(read more: TakePart.org)          (photo: Kariega Game Reserve)

This Miracle Baby Rhino Has the Best Birth Story Ever

The calf was born almost exactly a year after her father, nicknamed Hope, was brutally poached in South Africa.

by Joanna M. Foster

The birth of a baby rhino is always a miracle, and the pudgy new addition at Kariega Game Reserve family in South Africa is no exception. In fact, this little girl is downright wondrous. She was born almost exactly a year after her father was brutally poached. That bull rhino was nicknamed Hope for his heart-wrenching struggle to survive. Hope didn’t make it, but it appears he left behind more than just fond memories.

n March 2012, rangers at Kariega Game Reserve woke up after a seemingly tranquil moonlit night to discover three white rhinos huddled in tall grasses matted with blood. Two were still struggling to breathe, and one had already died in the night. Poachers had shot the gentle, prehistoric-looking giants and then sliced deep with their pangas to scrape out every fragment of horn.

Miraculously, the surviving bull and cow were able to limp off into the bushes with the help of a wildlife veterinary team. Over the course of the next month the grim determination of the surviving rhinos to carry on in spite of their life-threatening injuries earned them special nicknames, The bull was called Themba, which means Hope, and the cow was named Thandi, or Love…

(read more: TakePart.org)          (photo: Kariega Game Reserve)

lostbeasts

mucholderthen:

TOP:  ICE-AGE WOOLLY RHINO
This artist’s reconstruction shows a woolly rhinoceros grazing in the plains of northern Thuringia in Germany 460,000 years ago

BOTTOM:  PRE-ICE-AGE TIBETAN WOOLLY RHINO
Artist’s reconstruction of the woolly rhinoceros whose 3.7 million year old skull was discovered in southwest Tibet
_______________________________________

TIBETAN PLATEAU MAY HAVE BEEN A CRADLE
FOR ICE AGE MEGA-FAUNA

Tibet may have been a cradle for the ancestors of some prehistoric ice age giants - those large, furry mammals that ruled the world from 2.6 million to about 12,000 years ago.

In the Zanda Basin, high on the Tibetan Plateau, paleontologists have uncovered the skull of a previously unknown species of ancient rhino, a woolly furred animal that came equipped with a built-in snow shovel on its face. [pictured above, bottom].

Xiaoming Wang and his colleagues uncovered a complete rhino skull and lower jaw, along with a neck vertebra, in southwestern Tibet. The 3-foot-long (1 meter) skull is 3.7 million years old. It would have belonged to an animal that weighed 1.2 to 1.4 tons (1,090 to 1,270 kilograms), Wang said. That’s close to the size of modern rhinoceroses and about 10 percent smaller than the woolly rhinos found a million years later during the Ice Age [pictured above, top].

The rhino’s flat, paddle-like horn would have allowed it to brush away snow and find vegetation beneath, suggesting that the woolly rhinoceros was well-adapted for a cold, icy life in the Himalayas about 1 million years before the Ice Age.  The rhino had another feature that would have made it a master of winter weather. The teeth have high crowns, making them more durable and able to handle tough, high-altitude vegetation.

Those adaptations may have left the rhino perfectly poised to spread across Asia (a million years later) when global temperatures plummeted, ushering in the Ice Age.

_______________________________________

The Zanda Basin is in a remote area of western Tibet - called Ngari - that was the site of the ancient Tibetan kingdom of Gu-ge. It is now home to China’s Zanda Earth Forest National Geopark.  Mount Kailash is to its east.

Facing extinction, conservationists call emergency summit to save Sumatran rhinos
by Monga Bay staff
With the number of Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) now under 200 and declining rapidly, a group of conservationists have organized an emergency summit to discuss courses of action to save the world’s smallest remaining rhino from extinction.
The Sumatran Rhino Crisis Summit is being convened by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission from 31 March to 4 April, 2013 in Singapore. The meeting aims to come up with a plan and funds to prevent the rhino’s extinction.
Past efforts to protect the Sumatran Rhinoceros — including a disastrous captive breeding program — largely failed. The species, which clings to life in parts of peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Malaysian Borneo, is most immediately threatened by its low population density in the wild, poaching for their horns, and habitat loss…
(read more: Monga Bay)              (photo: Jeremy Hance)

Facing extinction, conservationists call emergency summit to save Sumatran rhinos

by Monga Bay staff

With the number of Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) now under 200 and declining rapidly, a group of conservationists have organized an emergency summit to discuss courses of action to save the world’s smallest remaining rhino from extinction.

The Sumatran Rhino Crisis Summit is being convened by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission from 31 March to 4 April, 2013 in Singapore. The meeting aims to come up with a plan and funds to prevent the rhino’s extinction.

Past efforts to protect the Sumatran Rhinoceros — including a disastrous captive breeding program — largely failed. The species, which clings to life in parts of peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Malaysian Borneo, is most immediately threatened by its low population density in the wild, poaching for their horns, and habitat loss…

(read more: Monga Bay)              (photo: Jeremy Hance)