Scientists Find Evidence for Tectonic Plates on Jupiter’s Moon Europa

Scientists have found evidence of plate tectonics on Jupiter’s moon Europa. This indicates the first sign of this type of surface-shifting geological activity on a world other than Earth.

Researchers have clear visual evidence of Europa’s icy crust expanding. However, they could not find areas where the old crust was destroyed to make room for the new. While examining Europa images taken by NASA’s Galileo orbiter in the early 2000s, planetary geologists Simon Kattenhorn, of the University of Idaho, Moscow, and Louise Prockter, of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, discovered some unusual geological boundaries.

"We have been puzzled for years as to how all this new terrain could be formed, but we couldn’t figure out how it was accommodated," said Prockter. "We finally think we’ve found the answer."

Plate tectonics is the scientific theory that Earth’s outer layer is made up of plates or blocks that move, which accounts for why mountain and volcanoes form and earthquakes happen…

(read more: Jet Propulsion Laboratory)

Image: Noah Kroese, I.NK

The Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) is an image of a small region of space in the constellation Fornax, composited from Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated over a period from September 24, 2003, through January 16, 2004, and released in 2004. Covering 2.4 arcminutes to an edge, the area was selected because of the low density of bright stars in the near-field, allowing much better viewing of dimmer, more distant objects. It required 400 rotations and a million seconds (11.6 days) of exposure to obtain sufficient light for producing this image, which contains an estimated 10,000 galaxies.
 Image: NASA
(via: Wikipedia)

The Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) is an image of a small region of space in the constellation Fornax, composited from Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated over a period from September 24, 2003, through January 16, 2004, and released in 2004. Covering 2.4 arcminutes to an edge, the area was selected because of the low density of bright stars in the near-field, allowing much better viewing of dimmer, more distant objects. It required 400 rotations and a million seconds (11.6 days) of exposure to obtain sufficient light for producing this image, which contains an estimated 10,000 galaxies.

Image: NASA

(via: Wikipedia)

The Carina Nebula is a large bright nebula that has within its boundaries several related open clusters of stars. Discovered by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1751–52, it is only visible from the Southern Hemisphere. Located an estimated distance between 6,500 and 10,000 light years from Earth, it is one of the largest diffuse nebulae in the planet’s skies and home to such stars as Eta Carinae and HD 93129A.
 Photo: European Southern Observatory/T. Preibisch
(via: Wikipedia)

The Carina Nebula is a large bright nebula that has within its boundaries several related open clusters of stars. Discovered by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1751–52, it is only visible from the Southern Hemisphere. Located an estimated distance between 6,500 and 10,000 light years from Earth, it is one of the largest diffuse nebulae in the planet’s skies and home to such stars as Eta Carinae and HD 93129A.

Photo: European Southern Observatory/T. Preibisch

(via: Wikipedia)

A solar flare, a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb which is interpreted as a large energy release, recorded on August 31, 2012. Such flares are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection; in this instance, the ejection traveled at over 900 miles (1,400 km) per second.
Photo: On August 31, 2012 a long filament of solar material that had been hovering in the sun’s atmosphere, the corona, erupted out into space at 4:36 p.m. EDT. The coronal mass ejection, or CME, traveled at over 900 miles per second. The CME did not travel directly toward Earth, but did connect with Earth’s magnetic environment, or magnetosphere, causing aurora to appear on the night of Monday, September 3. Pictured here is a lighten blended version of the 304 and 171 angstrom wavelengths taken from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.
(via: Wikipedia)

A solar flare, a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb which is interpreted as a large energy release, recorded on August 31, 2012. Such flares are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection; in this instance, the ejection traveled at over 900 miles (1,400 km) per second.

Photo: On August 31, 2012 a long filament of solar material that had been hovering in the sun’s atmosphere, the corona, erupted out into space at 4:36 p.m. EDT. The coronal mass ejection, or CME, traveled at over 900 miles per second. The CME did not travel directly toward Earth, but did connect with Earth’s magnetic environment, or magnetosphere, causing aurora to appear on the night of Monday, September 3. Pictured here is a lighten blended version of the 304 and 171 angstrom wavelengths taken from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

(via: Wikipedia)

Modern Research Borne on a Relic
Airships That Carry Science Into the Stratosphere
by Joshua A. Krisch
Airships are dusty relics of aviation history. Lighter-than-air vehicles conjure images of the Hindenburg, in its glory and destruction, and the Goodyear Blimp, a floating billboard that barely resembles its powerful predecessors.
But now engineers are designing sleek new airships that could streak past layers of cloud and chart a course through the thin, icy air of the stratosphere, 65,000 feet above the ground — twice the usual altitude of a jetliner. Steered by scientists below, these aerodynamic balloons might be equipped with onboard telescopes that peer into distant galaxies or gather oceanic data along a coastline…
(read more: NY Times)
image by Keck Institute for Space Studies/Eagre Institute

Modern Research Borne on a Relic

Airships That Carry Science Into the Stratosphere

by Joshua A. Krisch

Airships are dusty relics of aviation history. Lighter-than-air vehicles conjure images of the Hindenburg, in its glory and destruction, and the Goodyear Blimp, a floating billboard that barely resembles its powerful predecessors.

But now engineers are designing sleek new airships that could streak past layers of cloud and chart a course through the thin, icy air of the stratosphere, 65,000 feet above the ground — twice the usual altitude of a jetliner. Steered by scientists below, these aerodynamic balloons might be equipped with onboard telescopes that peer into distant galaxies or gather oceanic data along a coastline…

(read more: NY Times)

image by Keck Institute for Space Studies/Eagre Institute

An underground neutrino detector has found particles produced by the fusion of two protons in the sun’s core

Deep inside the sun pairs of protons fuse to form heavier atoms, releasing mysterious particles called neutrinos in the process. These reactions are thought to be the first step in the chain responsible for 99 percent of the energy the sun radiates, but scientists have never found proof until now. For the first time, physicists have captured the elusive neutrinos produced by the sun’s basic proton fusion reactions…

amnhnyc
amnhnyc:

HEY NEWYORKERS!
The Frontiers Lecture Series kicks off September 8 
with Caleb Scharf and the Copernicus Complex. 
Though the concept of “the universe” suggests the containment of everything, the latest ideas in cosmology hint that our universe may be just one of a multitude of others—a single slice of an infinity of parallel realities. Renowned astrophysicist and author Caleb Scharf takes us on a cosmic adventure like no other, from tiny microbes within the Earth to distant exoplanets and beyond, asserting that the age-old Copernican principle is in need of updating.
As Scharf argues, when Copernicus proposed that the Earth was not the fixed point at the center of the known universe (and therefore we are not unique), he set in motion a colossal scientific juggernaut, forever changing our vision of nature. But the principle has never been entirely true—we do live at a particular time, in a particular location, under particular circumstances. To solve this conundrum we must put aside our Copernican worldview and embrace the possibility that we are in a delicate balance between mediocrity and significance, order and chaos.
Scharf will sign copies of The Copernicus Complex: Our Cosmic Significance in a Universe of Planets and Probabilities after the lecture.
Get tickets today. 

amnhnyc:

HEY NEWYORKERS!

The Frontiers Lecture Series kicks off September 8

with Caleb Scharf and the Copernicus Complex

Though the concept of “the universe” suggests the containment of everything, the latest ideas in cosmology hint that our universe may be just one of a multitude of others—a single slice of an infinity of parallel realities. Renowned astrophysicist and author Caleb Scharf takes us on a cosmic adventure like no other, from tiny microbes within the Earth to distant exoplanets and beyond, asserting that the age-old Copernican principle is in need of updating.

As Scharf argues, when Copernicus proposed that the Earth was not the fixed point at the center of the known universe (and therefore we are not unique), he set in motion a colossal scientific juggernaut, forever changing our vision of nature. But the principle has never been entirely true—we do live at a particular time, in a particular location, under particular circumstances. To solve this conundrum we must put aside our Copernican worldview and embrace the possibility that we are in a delicate balance between mediocrity and significance, order and chaos.

Scharf will sign copies of The Copernicus Complex: Our Cosmic Significance in a Universe of Planets and Probabilities after the lecture.

Get tickets today. 

n-a-s-a
pennyfornasa:

New Horizons Flies By Neptune Exactly 25 Years After Voyager 2 In what NASA is calling a “cosmic coincidence” the New Horizons probe makes its flyby of Neptune on the 25th anniversary of Voyager 2’s Neptune encounter. On August 25, 1989, Voyager 2 made its closest flyby of Neptune, making it the first spacecraft to study the planet. During Voyager 2’s flyby, it discovered a massive anticyclonic storm system called the Great Dark Spot, similar to Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. Today, NASA’s New Horizons probe is embarking on an equally exciting journey to another world never before visited by a spacecraft. When the spacecraft arrives on July 14, 2015, it will provide the first detailed images of Pluto. The dwarf planet is so distant from us that even images captured by the Hubble Space Telescope appear blurry. Read more about the New Horizons mission and Voyager 2’s flyby of Neptune here: http://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/august/nasa-s-new-horizons-spacecraft-crosses-neptune-orbit-en-route-to-historic-pluto/index.htm

pennyfornasa:

New Horizons Flies By Neptune Exactly 25 Years After Voyager 2

In what NASA is calling a “cosmic coincidence” the New Horizons probe makes its flyby of Neptune on the 25th anniversary of Voyager 2’s Neptune encounter. On August 25, 1989, Voyager 2 made its closest flyby of Neptune, making it the first spacecraft to study the planet. During Voyager 2’s flyby, it discovered a massive anticyclonic storm system called the Great Dark Spot, similar to Jupiter’s Great Red Spot.

Today, NASA’s New Horizons probe is embarking on an equally exciting journey to another world never before visited by a spacecraft. When the spacecraft arrives on July 14, 2015, it will provide the first detailed images of Pluto. The dwarf planet is so distant from us that even images captured by the Hubble Space Telescope appear blurry.

Read more about the New Horizons mission and Voyager 2’s flyby of Neptune here: http://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/august/nasa-s-new-horizons-spacecraft-crosses-neptune-orbit-en-route-to-historic-pluto/index.htm

On August 24, 2014, the sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 8:16 a.m. EDT.

Here are some captured images of the flare, which erupted on the left side of the sun. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth’s atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground, however — when intense enough — they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel.

This flare is classified as an M5 flare. M-class flares are ten times less powerful than the most intense flares, called X-class flares.

Credit: NASA/Goddard/SDO

More here: NASA Little Solar Dynamics Observatory

Water Clouds Tentatively Detected Just 7 Light Years From Earth
by Ken Crosswell
Astronomers have found signs of water ice clouds on an object just 7.3 light-years from Earth—less than twice the distance of Alpha Centauri, the nearest star system to the sun. If confirmed, the discovery is the first sighting of water clouds beyond our solar system. The clouds shroud a Jupiter-sized object known as a brown dwarf and should yield insight into the nature of cool giant planets orbiting other suns.
Kevin Luhman, an astronomer at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, recently discovered the nearby object by using images from NASA’s WISE infrared space telescope, which scanned the sky from 2010 to 2011. A brown dwarf is a failed star and has so little mass that it can’t sustain nuclear reactions, so after its birth it fades and cools. This brown dwarf, named WISE J0855-0714, is the coldest known. Its temperature is slightly below the freezing point of water, so it’s colder than Earth’s mean temperature but warmer than Jupiter’s…
(read more: Science News/AAAS)
illustration: Rob Gizis, CUNY BMCC

Water Clouds Tentatively Detected Just 7 Light Years From Earth

by Ken Crosswell

Astronomers have found signs of water ice clouds on an object just 7.3 light-years from Earth—less than twice the distance of Alpha Centauri, the nearest star system to the sun. If confirmed, the discovery is the first sighting of water clouds beyond our solar system. The clouds shroud a Jupiter-sized object known as a brown dwarf and should yield insight into the nature of cool giant planets orbiting other suns.

Kevin Luhman, an astronomer at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, recently discovered the nearby object by using images from NASA’s WISE infrared space telescope, which scanned the sky from 2010 to 2011. A brown dwarf is a failed star and has so little mass that it can’t sustain nuclear reactions, so after its birth it fades and cools. This brown dwarf, named WISE J0855-0714, is the coldest known. Its temperature is slightly below the freezing point of water, so it’s colder than Earth’s mean temperature but warmer than Jupiter’s…

(read more: Science News/AAAS)

illustration: Rob Gizis, CUNY BMCC

Will Science Burst the Multiverse’s Bubble?
by Ian O’Neill
Physicists aren’t afraid of thinking big, but what happens when you think too big?

This philosophical question overlaps with real physics when hypothesizing what lies beyond the boundary of our observable universe. The problem with trying to apply science to something that may or may not exist beyond our physical realm is that it gets a little foggy as to how we could scientifically test it.

A leading hypothesis to come from cosmic inflation theory and advanced theoretical studies — centering around the superstring hypothesis — is that of the multiverse, an idea that scientists have had a hard time in testing.

In its most basic sense, the multiverse is a collection of universes popping in and out of existence, bustling around in a foamy mess, embedded in a vacuum of non-zero energy. Through quantum fluctuations, universes are born while others die — each universe taking on different forms and different kinds of physics.

But, if the multiverse hypothesis has any shred of reality behind it, how can scientists prove (or at least gather some observational evidence) that we exist inside one of an infinite ocean of universes? …
(read more: Discovery News)

Will Science Burst the Multiverse’s Bubble?

by Ian O’Neill

Physicists aren’t afraid of thinking big, but what happens when you think too big?

This philosophical question overlaps with real physics when hypothesizing what lies beyond the boundary of our observable universe. The problem with trying to apply science to something that may or may not exist beyond our physical realm is that it gets a little foggy as to how we could scientifically test it.

A leading hypothesis to come from cosmic inflation theory and advanced theoretical studies — centering around the superstring hypothesis — is that of the multiverse, an idea that scientists have had a hard time in testing.

In its most basic sense, the multiverse is a collection of universes popping in and out of existence, bustling around in a foamy mess, embedded in a vacuum of non-zero energy. Through quantum fluctuations, universes are born while others die — each universe taking on different forms and different kinds of physics.

But, if the multiverse hypothesis has any shred of reality behind it, how can scientists prove (or at least gather some observational evidence) that we exist inside one of an infinite ocean of universes? …

(read more: Discovery News)